The Cotutelle PhD is a new kind of international PhD which you can apply for if you want, when you apply to grad school. Here is a sample: http://uninews.unimelb.edu.au/news/1694/ [Broken] http://www.grs.unsw.edu.au/unistaff/cotutelle.html Some places offer it. Here's another example: http://www.kent.ac.uk/studying/postgrad/types/jointlysupervised.html [Broken] I know there are institutions in France, Switzerland, Italy and Australia and the UK that have this kind of cotutorship double doctorate program. I see that several of Carlo Rovelli's PhD students are doing the Cotutelle program, where they are jointly supervised at University of Rome and University of Marseille. You do only one thesis, and make one defense, and you get a PhD degree from both universities. There is no extra cost. You spend part time in each place. Like maybe half time in Marseille and half time in Rome.