Hello PF, This has been frustrating me for a while: The plasma inside a tokamak is being heated by current induction, which accelerates the ions and electrons in specific directions, thus the velocity of ions increase. These ions collide with each other, eventually randomizing the motion. Now, if the temperature is measured in two states, which one will have the higher temperature neglecting radiation? Is the rotation of ions considered a bulk motion therefore not increasing the temperature? Thank you.