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## Main Question or Discussion Point

Imagine following situation:

The whole space is in vacuum state.

We place in this space a nucleus with some charge X.

Now, there are everywhere vacuum fluctuations and thus the charge we measure near this nucleus is smaller than its effective charge (vacuum polarisation). Now, how big is this polarisation? I mean is there a formula we can calculate the charge we measure with a distance R apart from nucleus if the effective charge X of the nucleus is given?

The whole space is in vacuum state.

We place in this space a nucleus with some charge X.

Now, there are everywhere vacuum fluctuations and thus the charge we measure near this nucleus is smaller than its effective charge (vacuum polarisation). Now, how big is this polarisation? I mean is there a formula we can calculate the charge we measure with a distance R apart from nucleus if the effective charge X of the nucleus is given?