I started to read a bit of Konrads Lorent work, since he was pointed to me in this thread by Andre: https://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?p=2437331#post2437331 Ive come across on this: http://books.google.ro/books?id=Fwc...AQ#v=onepage&q=inhibitions on killing&f=false check "Function crucial" paragraph. In this article he express a interesting point of view, the point of view of a Bulldog which develops a trait which can be detrimental in other species, it's nose. He notes that the development of this trait might give a bulldog the chance to win a "dog show", and hence it make perfect sense for survival from the bulldog point of view. He also notes the behavior of human females in choosing their spouses. But from my point of view, can we talk about about this as the selection developing a survival trait in a bulldog which makes perfect sense ? Bulldogs and other dog races are actively developed by humans. Inbreeding is actively used to fix traits which may be likable to watch by humans in a show. Many times, due to the abuse of genetic manipulation to fix some traits, those dogs can have a lot of other problems. Can we talk about "selection produces a trait" when we, humans, force selection ? I think no. The bulldog it;s a victim of human arrogance. It;s the handicapped jester of the feudal royal courts. It is my opinion that those traits where engineered, not developed by selection. Likewise, the case of human females. I don't know statistics, but I am sure there are many cases when a female choose a spouse, but she actually produce offspring with a different male, and many times the spouse doesn't have the slightest idea that those children are not his genetic descendants. So the choose of a spouse doesn't always coincide with transfer of genetic material in offspring from the spouse. Opinions ?