# Lab Memo: Flip-Flop Analysis - 4 bit counter

• ravenprp
In summary, the conversation discussed a four-bit binary counter using integrated circuits and the general equation for its frequency. The difference between a ripple counter and a synchronous counter was also mentioned, with the former being asynchronous and the latter being controlled by a common clock. Propagation delays were also brought up as a disadvantage of ripple counters.
ravenprp
Hi, I have a four-bit binary counter utilizing two 74LS76 and two 74LS74 integrated circuits. I've attached a picture.

I have to write a lab report, and this is what I have so far:

If we were to label each flip-flop from 1 to 4 (left to right) in Figure 3B, Appendix B, each successive output is halved. Assume f0 is the original clock pulse.
o The general equation for the frequency yields: fN = f0 / 2N where N is the number of the respective flip-flop in sequence.
 The output of flip-flop #1: f0 / 2
 The output of flip-flop #2: f0 / 4
 The output of flip-flop #3: f0 / 8
 The output of flip-flop #4: f0 / 16

Disregard the Appendix refernece. Is this correct?

EDIT -- added the picture, I forgot

#### Attachments

• 4-bit-counter.JPG
10 KB · Views: 525
Looks okay to me, within the limitations of ripple counters. Quiz question -- what's the difference between a ripple counter and a synchronous counter. When would you not want to use a ripple counter?

Oh, I know this. Ripple counter -- is asynchronous because its not controlled by a common clock, rather the flip flops are cascaded so they take in CP from the previous Q. Syncrhonous is a common clock.

Plus you have propogation delays with ripple counters.

f = 1 / N * t_prop

## 1. What is a flip-flop analysis in a 4 bit counter?

A flip-flop analysis refers to the study and evaluation of the behavior and functioning of flip-flops in a 4 bit counter. Flip-flops are electronic devices that can store a binary state (0 or 1) and are used in digital circuits to store and manipulate data. A 4 bit counter is a type of digital circuit that counts in binary from 0 to 15.

## 2. Why is a 4 bit counter important in digital circuits?

A 4 bit counter is important in digital circuits because it can count from 0 to 15, which is the maximum number that can be represented with 4 bits. This allows for efficient and accurate counting and manipulation of data in digital systems.

## 3. How does a flip-flop work in a 4 bit counter?

In a 4 bit counter, each flip-flop stores one bit of data. The flip-flops are connected in a sequence, with the output of one flip-flop connected to the input of the next. This allows for the counting sequence to progress from 0 to 15. When a clock signal is applied, the flip-flops change their state according to the input and output connections, resulting in the desired counting sequence.

## 4. What are the applications of a 4 bit counter?

A 4 bit counter has various applications in digital systems, including frequency division, time measurement, and data storage. It is also commonly used in electronic devices such as calculators, timers, and digital clocks.

## 5. How can I analyze the performance of a 4 bit counter using flip-flop analysis?

The performance of a 4 bit counter can be analyzed by studying the behavior of the flip-flops in the circuit. This includes examining the input and output connections, clock signals, and propagation delays. By understanding how the flip-flops work together, the overall performance of the 4 bit counter can be evaluated and improved.

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