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BobG

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The magnitude of both vectors is the radius of the Earth. The latitude and longitude give you the other two polar coordinates needed to define each location's position vector. Convert the polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates (ijk coordinates) by projecting the magnitude onto the x, y, and z axis, and do the vector subtraction.

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OlderDan

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It's not just x-y coordinates; it's x-y-z coordinates that you need. The cities are on the surface of the earth, so they are one earth's radius from its center. Lattitude and longitude give you the rest of the information you need to express the postions of the cities in terms of x-y-zcourtrigrad said:

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http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/~pbourke/projection/coords/ [Broken]

Then use the distance formula in cartesian coordinates to find the magnitude of the displacement.

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