Hi everyone!!(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});

I can't figure out why electromagnetism is defined a non integrable phase factor (or path dependent), referring to the element of the Lie group U1 to which it (the phase factor) belongs.

Why it's said to be non-integrable? And, precisely, how do we specify a path for the [itex]e^{\theta}[/itex] ?

By parametrizing a path with respect to [itex]\theta[/itex]?

Thanks!!

**Physics Forums | Science Articles, Homework Help, Discussion**

The friendliest, high quality science and math community on the planet! Everyone who loves science is here!

# Lie path dependent factor

**Physics Forums | Science Articles, Homework Help, Discussion**