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I can't figure out why electromagnetism is defined a non integrable phase factor (or path dependent), referring to the element of the Lie group U1 to which it (the phase factor) belongs.

Why it's said to be non-integrable? And, precisely, how do we specify a path for the [itex]e^{\theta}[/itex] ?

By parametrizing a path with respect to [itex]\theta[/itex]?

Thanks!!

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# Lie path dependent factor

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