I know that if you have x states then you need log2(x) bits to encode them. For example a coin has 2 states and you need 1 bit which is log2(2). It also works for numbers between 0 and 1 for example if you halve the amount of states you need to add log2(1/2) bits which is -1. So what does log2(i) mean? How can you have i states and encode them in log2(i) bits? Also on a related note why does it require -infinite bits to encode 0 states?