Dismiss Notice
Join Physics Forums Today!
The friendliest, high quality science and math community on the planet! Everyone who loves science is here!

Loop-and-allied QG bibliography

  1. Aug 29, 2013 #2021

    marcus

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor
    Gold Member
    Dearly Missed

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1308.6289
    Indistinguishability of thermal and quantum fluctuations
    Sanved Kolekar, T. Padmanabhan
    (Submitted on 28 Aug 2013)
    The existence of Davies-Unruh temperature in a uniformly accelerated frame shows that quantum fluctuations of the inertial vacuum state appears as thermal fluctuations in the accelerated frame. Hence thermodynamic experiments cannot distinguish between phenomena occurring in a thermal bath of temperature T in the inertial frame from those in a frame accelerating through inertial vacuum with the acceleration a=2π T. We show that this indisguishability between quantum fluctuations and thermal fluctuations goes far beyond the fluctuations in the vacuum state. We show by an exact calculation, that the reduced density matrix for a uniformly accelerated observer when the quantum field is in a thermal state of temperature ##T^\prime## is symmetric between acceleration temperature T = a/(2π) and the thermal bath temperature ##T^\prime##. Thus thermal phenomena cannot distinguish whether (i) one is accelerating with ##a = 2\pi T## through a bath of temperature ##T^\prime## or (ii) accelerating with ##a=2\pi T^\prime## through a bath of temperature T. This shows that thermal and quantum fluctuations in an accelerated frame affect the observer in a symmetric manner. The implications are discussed.
    4 pages
     
  2. Sep 1, 2013 #2022

    marcus

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor
    Gold Member
    Dearly Missed

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1308.6586
    Canonical structure of Tetrad Bimetric Gravity
    Sergei Alexandrov
    (Submitted on 29 Aug 2013)
    We perform the complete canonical analysis of the tetrad formulation of bimetric gravity and confirm that it is ghost-free describing the seven degrees of freedom of a massless and a massive gravitons. In particular, we find explicit expressions for secondary constraints, one of which is responsible for removing the ghost, whereas the other ensures the equivalence with the metric formulation. Both of them have a remarkably simple form and, being combined with conditions on Lagrange multipliers, can be written in a covariant way.
    18 pages

    brief mention:
    http://arxiv.org/abs/1308.6773
    Quantum field theory on curved spacetime and the standard cosmological model
    Klaus Fredenhagen, Thomas-Paul Hack
    (Submitted on 30 Aug 2013)
    The aim of this review is to outline a full route from the fundamental principles of algebraic quantum field theory on curved spacetime in its present-day form to explicit phenomenological applications which allow for comparison with experimental data. We give a brief account on the quantization of the free scalar field and its Wick powers in terms of an algebra of functionals on configuration space. Afterwards we demonstrate that there exist states on this algebra in which the energy momentum tensor is qualitatively and quantitatively of the perfect fluid form assumed in the standard model of cosmology up to small corrections. We indicate the potential relevance of one of these corrections for the actively debated phenomenon of Dark Radiation.
    18 pages, 1 figure.
     
  3. Sep 2, 2013 #2023

    marcus

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor
    Gold Member
    Dearly Missed

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.0311
    Phenomenology of Space-time Imperfection I: Nonlocal Defects
    Sabine Hossenfelder
    (Submitted on 2 Sep 2013)
    If space-time is emergent from a fundamentally non-geometric theory it will generically be left with defects. Such defects need not respect the locality that emerges with the background. Here, we develop a phenomenological model that parameterizes the effects of nonlocal defects on the propagation of particles. In this model, Lorentz-invariance is preserved on the average. We derive constraints on the density of defects from various experiments.
    25 pages, 7 figures

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.0314
    Phenomenology of Space-time Imperfection II: Local Defects
    Sabine Hossenfelder
    (Submitted on 2 Sep 2013)
    We propose a phenomenological model for the scattering of particles on space-time defects in a treatment that maintains Lorentz-invariance on the average. The local defects considered here cause a stochastic violation of momentum conservation. The scattering probability is parameterized in the density of defects and the distribution of the momentum that a particle can obtain when scattering on the defect. We identify the most promising observable consequences and derive constraints from existing data.
    18 pages, 5 figures

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.0352
    Cosmological perturbations in teleparallel Loop Quantum Cosmology
    Jaime Haro
    (Submitted on 2 Sep 2013)
    Cosmological perturbations in Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) could be studied from two totally different ways. The first one, called holonomy corrected LQC, is performed in the Hamiltonian framework, where the Asthekar connection is replaced by a suitable sinus function (holonomy correction), in order to have a well-defined quantum analogue. The alternative approach is based in the fact that isotropic LQC could be also obtained as a particular case of teleparallel F(T) gravity (teleparallel LQC). Then, working in the Lagrangian framework and using the well-know perturbation equations in F(T) gravity, we have obtained, in teleparallel LQC, the equations for scalar and tensor perturbations, and the corresponding Mukhanov-Sasaki equations. For scalar perturbations, our equation only differs from the one obtained by holonomy corrections in the velocity of sound, leading both formulations, essentially to the same scale invariant power spectrum when a matter-dominated universe is considered. However for tensor perturbations our equation is completely different from the one obtained using the other approach. In fact, in holonomy corrected LQC, since the equation for tensor perturbations contains two singular points, the corresponding power spectrum is "mode dependent", that is, it is not unambiguously defined. This problem does not appear in teleparallel LQC where,for a matter-dominated universe, we have obtained a ratio of tensor to scalar perturbations of the order 1.
    4 pages
     
    Last edited: Sep 2, 2013
  4. Sep 2, 2013 #2024

    MTd2

    User Avatar
    Gold Member

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.0132

    Rovelli' s relational quantum mechanics, monism and quantum becoming
    Mauro Dorato
    (Submitted on 31 Aug 2013)
    In this paper I present and defend Rovelli's relation quantum mechanics from some foreseeable objections, so as to clarify its philosophical implications vis a vis rival interpretations. In particular I ask whether RQM presupposes a hidden recourse to both a duality of evolutions and of ontology (the relationality of quantum world and the intrinsicness of the classical world, which in the limit must be recovered from the former). I then concentrate on the pluralistic, antimonistic metaphysical consequences of the theory, due to the impossibility of assigning a state to the quantum universe. Finally, in the last section I note interesting consequences of RQM with respect to the possibility of defining a local, quantum relativistic becoming (in flat spacetimes).Given the difficulties of having the cosmic form of becoming that would be appropriate for priority monism, RQM seems to present an important advantage with respect to monistic views, at least as far as the possibility of explaining our experience of time is concerned.
     
  5. Sep 3, 2013 #2025

    marcus

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor
    Gold Member
    Dearly Missed

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.0777
    Coupling and thermal equilibrium in general-covariant systems
    Goffredo Chirco, Hal M. Haggard, Carlo Rovelli
    (Submitted on 3 Sep 2013)
    A fully general-covariant formulation of statistical mechanics is still lacking. We take a step toward this theory by studying the meaning of statistical equilibrium for coupled, parametrized systems. We discuss how to couple parametrized systems. We express the thermalization hypothesis in a general-covariant context. This takes the form of vanishing of information flux. An interesting relation emerges between thermal equilibrium and gauge.
    8 pages, 3 figures

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.0652
    Non-abelian Gauge Fields from Defects in Spin-Networks
    Deepak Vaid
    (Submitted on 3 Sep 2013)
    Effective gauge fields arise in the description of the dynamics of defects in lattices of graphene in condensed matter. The interactions between neighboring nodes of a lattice/spin-network are described by the Hubbard model whose effective field theory at long distances is given by the Dirac equation for an emergent gauge field. The spin-networks in question can be used to describe the geometry experienced by a non-inertial observer in flat spacetime moving at a constant acceleration in a given direction. We expect such spin-networks to describe the structure of quantum horizons of black holes in loop quantum gravity. We argue that the abelian and non-abelian gauge fields of the Standard Model can be identified with the emergent degrees of freedom required to describe the dynamics of defects in symmetry reduced spin-networks.
    6 pages.

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.0804
    On-shell Techniques and Universal Results in Quantum Gravity
    N.E.J Bjerrum-Bohr, John F. Donoghue, Pierre Vanhove
    (Submitted on 3 Sep 2013)
    We compute the leading post-Newtonian and quantum corrections to the Coulomb and Newtonian potentials using the full modern arsenal of on-shell techniques; we employ spinor-helicity variables everywhere, use the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) relations to derive gravity amplitudes from gauge theory and use unitarity methods to extract the terms needed at one-loop order. We stress that our results are universal and thus will hold in any quantum theory of gravity with the same low-energy degrees of freedom as we are considering. Previous results for the corrections to the same potentials, derived historically using Feynman graphs, are verified explicitly, but our approach presents a huge simplification, since starting points for the computations are compact and tedious index contractions and various complicated integral reductions are eliminated from the onset, streamlining the derivations. We also analyze the spin dependence of the results using the KLT factorization, and show how the spinless correction in the framework are easily seen to be independent of the interacting matter considered.
    34 pages, 7 figures

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.0713
    Projective Structures in Loop Quantum Cosmology
    Maximilian Hanusch
    (Submitted on 3 Sep 2013)
    Projective structures have successfully been used for the construction of measures in the framework of loop quantum gravity. In the present paper we establish such a structure for the space R ⊔ RBohr recently constructed in the context of homogeneous isotropic loop quantum cosmology. This space has the advantage to be canonically embedded into the quantum configuration space of the full theory, but, in contrast to the traditional space RBohr there exists no Haar measure on R ⊔ RBohr. The introduced projective structure, however, allows to construct a family of canonical measures on R ⊔ RBohr whose corresponding Hilbert spaces of square integrable functions we finally investigate.
    29 pages

    brief mention, not Loop-and-allied QG but of general interest:
    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.0773
    Quantum Weak Measurements and Cosmology
    Paul Davies
    (Submitted on 3 Sep 2013)
    The indeterminism of quantum mechanics generally permits the independent specification of both an initial and a final condition on the state. Quantum pre-and-post-selection of states opens up a new, experimentally testable, sector of quantum mechanics, when combined with statistical averages of identical weak measurements. In this paper I apply the theory of weak quantum measurements combined with pre-and-post-selection to cosmology. Here, pre-selection means specifying the wave function of the universe or, in a popular semi-classical approximation, the initial quantum state of a subset of quantum fields propagating in a classical back-ground spacetime. The novel feature is post-selection: the additional specification of a condition on the quantum state in the far future. I discuss "natural" final conditions, and show how they may lead to potentially large and observable effects at the present cosmological epoch. I also discuss how pre-and-post-selected quantum contrast to the expectation value of the stress-energy-momentum tensor, resolving a vigorous debate from the 1970's. The paper thus provides a framework for computing large-scale cosmological effects arising from this new sector of quantum mechanics. A simple experimental test is proposed.
    15 pages.

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.0792
    Measurements according to "Consistent Quantum Theory"
    Elias Okon, Daniel Sudarsky
    (Submitted on 3 Sep 2013)
    We critically evaluate the treatment of the notion of measurement in the Consistent Histories approach to quantum mechanics. We find such treatment unsatisfactory because it relies, often implicitly, on elements external to the provided formalism. In particular, when dealing with measurement scenarios, the formalism, in order to be informative, needs to assume that after measurements measuring apparatuses are always in states of well defined pointer positions. The problem is that there is nothing in the formalism to justify this assumption. We conclude that the Consistent Histories approach, contrary to what is claimed by its proponents, fails to provide a truly satisfactory resolution to the measurement problem of quantum mechanics.
    15 pages
     
    Last edited: Sep 3, 2013
  6. Sep 9, 2013 #2026
    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.1090
    Sustainable entanglement farming from a quantum field
    Eduardo Martin-Martinez, Eric G. Brown, William Donnelly, Achim Kempf
    (Submitted on 4 Sep 2013)
    We propose a protocol by which entanglement can be extracted repeatedly from a quantum field. In analogy with prior work on entanglement harvesting, we call this protocol entanglement farming. It consists of successively sending pairs of unentangled particles through an optical cavity. Using non-perturbative Gaussian methods, we show that in certain generic circumstances this protocol drives the cavity field towards a non-thermal metastable state. This state of the cavity is such that successive pairs of unentangled particles sent through the cavity will reliably emerge significantly entangled. We calculate thermodynamic aspects of the harvesting process, such as energies and entropies, and also the long-term behavior beyond the few-mode approximation. Significant for possible experimental realizations is the fact that this entangling fixed point state of the cavity is reached largely independently of the initial state in which the cavity was prepared. Our results suggest that reliable entanglement farming on the basis of such a fixed point state should be possible also in various other experimental settings, namely with the to-be-entangled particles replaced by arbitrary qudits and with the cavity replaced by a suitable reservoir system.

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.1119
    A first look at Weyl anomalies in shape dynamics
    Henrique Gomes
    (Submitted on 4 Sep 2013 (v1), last revised 5 Sep 2013 (this version, v2))
    One of the more popular objections towards shape dynamics is the suspicion that anomalies in the spatial Weyl symmetry will arise upon quantization. The purpose of this short paper is to establish the tools required for an investigation of the sort of anomalies that can possibly arise. The first step is to adapt to our setting Barnich and Henneaux's formulation of gauge cohomology in the Hamiltonian setting, which serve to decompose the anomaly into a spatial component and time component. The spatial part of the anomaly, i.e. the anomaly in the symmetry algebra itself ($[\Omega, \Omega]\propto \hbar$ instead of vanishing) is given by a projection of the second ghost cohomology of the Hamiltonian BRST differential associated to $\Omega$, modulo spatial derivatives. The temporal part, $[\Omega, H]\propto\hbar$ is given by a different projection of the first ghost cohomology and an extra piece arising from a solution to a functional differential equation. Assuming locality of the gauge cohomology groups involved, this part is always local. Assuming locality for the gauge cohomology groups, using Barnich and Henneaux's results, the classification of Weyl cohomology for higher ghost numbers performed by Boulanger, and following the descent equations, we find a complete characterizations of anomalies in 3+1 dimensions. The spatial part of the anomaly and the first component of the temporal anomaly are always local given these assumptions even in shape dynamics. The part emerging from the solution of the functional differential equations explicitly involves the shape dynamics Hamiltonian, and thus might be non-local. If one restricts this extra piece of the temporal anomaly to be also local, then overall no \emph{local} Weyl anomalies, either temporal or spatial, emerge in the 3+1 case.

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.1660
    Gauge gravity and discrete quantum models
    John W. Barrett, Steven Kerr
    (Submitted on 6 Sep 2013)
    The gauge gravity action for general relativity in any dimension using a connection for the Euclidean or Poincar\'e group and a symmetry-breaking scalar field is written using a particularly simple matrix technique. A discrete version of the gauge gravity action for variables on a triangulated 3-manifold is given and it is shown how, for a certain class of triangulations of the three-sphere, the discrete quantum model this defines is equivalent to the Ponzano-Regge model of quantum gravity.

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.1403
    Atomism and Relationalism as guiding principles for Quantum Gravity
    Francesca Vidotto
    (Submitted on 5 Sep 2013)
    The research in quantum gravity has jauntily grown in the recent years, intersecting with conceptual and philosophical issues that have a long history. In this paper I analyze the conceptual basis on which Loop Quantum Gravity has grown, the way it deals with some classical problems of philosophy of science and the main methodological and philosophical assumptions on which it is based. In particular, I emphasize the importance that atomism (in the broadest sense) and relationalism have had in the construction of the theory.

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.1690
    Continuum limit in matrix models for quantum gravity from the Functional Renormalization Group
    Astrid Eichhorn, Tim Koslowski
    (Submitted on 6 Sep 2013)
    We consider the double-scaling limit in matrix models for two-dimensional quantum gravity, and establish the nonperturbative functional Renormalization Group as a novel technique to compute the corresponding interacting fixed point of the Renormalization Group flow. We explicitly evaluate critical exponents and compare to the exact results. The functional Renormalization Group method allows a generalization to tensor models for higher-dimensional quantum gravity and to group field theories. As a simple example how this method works for such models, we compute the leading-order beta function for a colored matrix model that is inspired by recent developments in tensor models.
     
  7. Sep 10, 2013 #2027

    MTd2

    User Avatar
    Gold Member

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.0195

    Living in Curved Momentum Space

    J. Kowalski-Glikman
    (Submitted on 1 Mar 2013 (v1), last revised 10 Sep 2013 (this version, v2))
    In this paper we review some aspects of relativistic particles' mechanics in the case of a non-trivial geometry of momentum space. We start with showing how the curved momentum space arises in the theory of gravity in 2+1 dimensions coupled to particles, when (topological) degrees of freedom of gravity are solved for. We argue that there might exist a similar topological phase of quantum gravity in 3+1 dimensions. Then we characterize the main properties of the theory of interacting particles with curved momentum space and the symmetries of the action. We discuss the spacetime picture and the emergence of the principle of relative locality, according to which locality of events is not absolute but becomes observer dependent, in the controllable, relativistic way. We conclude with the detailed review of the most studied kappa-Poincare framework, which corresponds to the de Sitter momentum space.
     
  8. Sep 10, 2013 #2028

    MTd2

    User Avatar
    Gold Member

    General curiosity:

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.2396

    Lorenz, Gödel and Penrose: New perspectives on geometry and determinism in fundamental physics
    T.N.Palmer
    (Submitted on 10 Sep 2013)
    Meteorologist Ed Lorenz, pioneer of chaos theory, is well known for his demonstration of `the butterfly effect'. More fundamentally, however, Lorenz's research established a profound link between space-time calculus and state-space fractal geometry. Amazingly, properties of Lorenz's fractal invariant set can be shown to relate space-time calculus to deep areas of mathematics associated with Wiles' proof of Fermat's Last Theorem and G\"{o}del's Incompleteness Theorem. Motivated by this, it is proposed that our theories of fundamental physics should also be framed in terms of state-space geometry rather than the traditional space-time calculus. To develop these ideas more concretely, it is supposed that the universe U is itself a deterministic dynamical system evolving on a fractal invariant set I_U in its state space. Symbolic representations of I_U are constructed explicitly based on permutation representations of quaternions. The resulting `Invariant Set Theory' provides a conspiracy-free causal perspective on fundamental physics from which some key concepts in quantum theory are emergent: incompatible observables, wave-particle duality, Planck's constant and apparent nonlocality; Bell's theorem being nullified by exploiting a finite-precision loophole arising from the fractal geometry of I_U. The complex Hilbert Space of quantum theory emerges as a singular limit of this topological representation of I_U. The primacy of geometry as embodied in the proposed theory extends the principles underpinning general relativity. As a result, the physical basis for contemporary programmes which seek a `quantum theory of gravity' is questioned. Based on the geometry of I_U, an alternative `gravitational theory of the quantum' is proposed. Some meat is put on the bones of Penrose's suggestion that the correct theory of quantum gravity might be a deterministic but non-computable theory.
     
  9. Sep 12, 2013 #2029

    MTd2

    User Avatar
    Gold Member

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1209.0881

    The Physics of Events: A Potential Foundation for Emergent Space-Time

    Kevin H. Knuth, Newshaw Bahreyni
    (Submitted on 5 Sep 2012 (v1), last revised 12 Sep 2013 (this version, v2))
    Everything that is detected or measured is the direct result of something influencing something else. This is the essence of the concept of force, which has become central to physics. By considering both the act of influencing and the response to such influence as a pair of events, we can describe a universe of interactions as a partially-ordered set of events. In this paper, we take the partially-ordered set of events as a fundamental picture of influence and aim to determine what interesting physics can be recovered. This is accomplished by identifying a means by which events in a partially-ordered set can be aptly and consistently quantified. Since, in general, a partially-ordered set lacks symmetries to constraint any quantification, we propose to distinguish a chain of events, which represents an observer, and quantify some subset of events with respect to the observer chain. We demonstrate that consistent quantification with respect to pairs of observer chains exhibiting a constant relationship with one another results in a metric analogous to the Minkowski metric and that transformation of the quantification with respect to one pair of chains to quantification with respect to another pair of chains results in the Bondi k-calculus, which represents a Lorentz transformation under a simple change of variables. We further demonstrate that chain projection induces geometric structure in the partially-ordered set, which itself is inherently both non-geometric and non-dimensional. Collectively, these results suggest that the concept of space-time geometry may emerge as a unique way for an embedded observer to aptly and consistently quantify a partially-ordered set of events. In addition to having potential implications for space-time physics, this also may serve as a foundation for understanding analogous space-time in condensed matter systems.
     
  10. Sep 12, 2013 #2030

    marcus

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor
    Gold Member
    Dearly Missed

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.3261
    Uniformly accelerated observer in a thermal bath
    Sanved Kolekar
    (Submitted on 12 Sep 2013)
    We investigate the quantum field aspects in flat spacetime for an uniformly accelerated observer moving in a thermal bath. In particular, we obtain an exact closed expression of the reduced density matrix for an uniformly accelerated observer with acceleration a = 2πT when the state of the quantum field is a thermal bath at temperature T′. We find that the density matrix has a simple form with an effective partition function Z being a product, Z = ZT ZT′ , of two thermal partition functions corresponding to temperatures T and T′ and hence is not thermal, even when T = T′. We show that, even though the partition function has a product structure, the two thermal baths are, in fact, interacting systems; although in the high frequency limit ωk ≫ T and ωk ≫ T′, the interactions are found to become sub-dominant. We further demonstrate that the resulting spectrum of the Rindler particles can be interpreted in terms of spontaneous and stimulated emission due to the background thermal bath. The density matrix is also found to be symmetric in the acceleration temperature T and the thermal bath temperature T′ indicating that thermodynamic experiments alone cannot distinguish between the thermal effects due to T and those due to T′. The entanglement entropy associated with the reduced density matrix (with the background contribution of the Davies-Unruh bath removed) is shown to satisfy, in the ωk ≫ T′ limit, a first law of thermodynamics relation of the form TδS = δE where δE is the difference in the energies corresponding to the reduced density matrix and the background Davies-Unruh bath. The implications are discussed.
    16 pages
     
  11. Sep 17, 2013 #2031
    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.3999
    The measure matters
    Giovanni Amelino-Camelia, Michele Arzano, Giulia Gubitosi, Joao Magueijo
    (Submitted on 16 Sep 2013)
    We adopt a framework where quantum-gravity's dynamical dimensional reduction of spacetime at short distances is described in terms of modified dispersion relations. We observe that by subjecting such models to a momentum-space diffeomorphism one obtains a "dual picture" with unmodified dispersion relations, but a modified measure of integration over momenta. We then find that the UV {\it Hausdorff} dimension of momentum space which can be inferred from this modified integration measure coincides with the short-distance {\it spectral} dimension of spacetime. This result sheds light into why scale-invariant fluctuations are obtained if the original model for two UV spectral dimensions is combined with Einstein gravity. By studying the properties of the inner product we derive the result that it is only in 2 energy-momentum dimensions that microphysical vacuum fluctuations are scale-invariant. This is true ignoring gravity, but then we find that if Einstein gravity is postulated in the original frame, in the dual picture gravity switches off, since all matter becomes conformally coupled. We argue that our findings imply that the following concepts are closely connected: scale-invariance of vacuum quantum fluctuations, conformal invariance of the gravitational coupling, UV reduction to spectral dimension 2 in position space and UV reduction to Hausdorff dimension 2 in energy-momentum space.
     
  12. Sep 18, 2013 #2032
    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.4424
    Quantum field theory in the Rindler-Rindler spacetime
    Sanved Kolekar, T. Padmanabhan
    (Submitted on 17 Sep 2013)
    It is well known that Minkowski vacuum appears as a thermal bath in the Rindler spacetime when the modes on the left wedge are traced out. We introduce the concept of a Rindler-Rindler spacetime, obtained by a further coordinate transformation from the Rindler spacetime, in a manner similar to the transformation from inertial to Rindler frame. We show that the Rindler vacuum appears as a thermal state in the Rindler-Rindler frame. Further, the spectrum of particles seen by the Rindler-Rindler observers in the original Minkowski vacuum state is shown to be identical to that seen by detector accelerating through a real thermal bath. Thus the Davies-Unruh effect acts as a proxy for a real thermal bath, for a certain class of observers in the Rindler-Rindler spacetime. We interpret this similarity as indicating further evidence of the indistinguishablity between thermal and quantum fluctuations along the lines of the recent work in arXiv:1308.6289. The implications are briefly discussed.

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.4084
    Unified meta-theory of information, consciousness, time and the classical-quantum universe
    Martin A. Green
    (Submitted on 16 Sep 2013)
    As time advances in our perceived real world, existing information is preserved and new information is added to history. All the information that may ever be encoded in history must be about some fundamental, unique, atemporal and pre-physical structure: the bare world. Scientists invent model worlds to efficiently explain aspects of the real world. This paper explores the features of and relationships between the bare, real, and model worlds. Time -- past, present and future -- is naturally explained. Both quantum uncertainty and state reduction are needed for time to progress, since unpredictable new information must be added to history. Deterministic evolution preserves existing information. Finite, but steadily increasing, information about the bare world is jointly encoded in equally uncertain spacetime geometry and quantum matter. Because geometry holds no information independent of matter, there is no need to quantize gravity. At the origin of time, information goes to zero and geometry and matter fade away.


    This gives some food for thought.....
     
  13. Sep 18, 2013 #2033

    atyy

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.4563
    Statistics, holography, and black hole entropy in loop quantum gravity
    Amit Ghosh, Karim Noui, Alejandro Perez
    (Submitted on 18 Sep 2013)
    In loop quantum gravity the quantum states of a black hole horizon are produced by point-like discrete quantum geometry excitations (or punctures) labelled by spin ##j##. The excitations possibly carry other internal degrees of freedom also, and the associated quantum states are eigenstates of the area ##A## operator. On the other hand, the appropriately scaled area operator ##A/(8\pi\ell)## is also the physical Hamiltonian associated with the quasilocal stationary observers located at a small distance ##\ell## from the horizon. Thus, the local energy is entirely accounted for by the geometric operator ##A##.
    We assume that: In a suitable vacuum state with regular energy momentum tensor at and close to the horizon the local temperature measured by stationary observers is the Unruh temperature and the degeneracy of `matter' states is exponential with the area ##\exp{(\lambda A/\ell_p^2)}##---this is supported by the well established results of QFT in curved spacetimes, which do not determine ##\lambda## but asserts an exponential behaviour. The geometric excitations of the horizon (punctures) are indistinguishable. In the semiclassical limit the area of the black hole horizon is large in Planck units.
    It follows that: Up to quantum corrections, matter degrees of freedom saturate the holographic bound, viz. ##\lambda=\frac{1}{4}##. Up to quantum corrections, the statistical black hole entropy coincides with Bekenstein-Hawking entropy ##S={A}/({4\ell_p^2})##. The number of horizon punctures goes like ##N\propto \sqrt{A/\ell_p^2}##, i.e the number of punctures ##N## remains large in the semiclassical limit. Fluctuations of the horizon area are small while fluctuations of the area of an individual puncture are large. A precise notion of local conformal invariance of the thermal state is recovered in the ##A\to\infty## limit where the near horizon geometry becomes Rindler.
     
    Last edited: Sep 18, 2013
  14. Sep 19, 2013 #2034
    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.4480
    Scale-free primordial cosmology
    Anna Ijjas, Paul J. Steinhardt, Abraham Loeb
    (Submitted on 17 Sep 2013)
    The large-scale structure of the universe suggests that the physics underlying its early evolution is scale-free. This was the historic motivation for the Harrison-Zel'dovich-Peebles spectrum and for inflation. Based on a hydrodynamical approach, we identify scale-free forms for the background equation-of-state for both inflationary and cyclic scenarios and use these forms to derive predictions for the spectral tilt and tensor-to-scalar ratio of primordial density perturbations. For the case of inflation, we find three classes of scale-free models with distinct predictions. Including all classes, we show that scale-free inflation predicts tensor-to-scalar ratio $r > 10^{-4}$. We show that the observationally favored class is theoretically disfavored because it suffers from an initial conditions problem and the hydrodynamical form of an unlikeliness problem similar to that identified recently for certain inflaton potentials. We contrast these results with those for scale-free cyclic models.
     
  15. Sep 22, 2013 #2035

    marcus

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor
    Gold Member
    Dearly Missed

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.5343
    Using Cosmology to Establish the Quantization of Gravity
    Lawrence M. Krauss (1,2), Frank Wilczek (3) ((1) Arizona State University, (2) Australian National Univeresity, (3) MIT)
    (Submitted on 20 Sep 2013)
    While many aspects of general relativity have been tested, and general principles of quantum dynamics demand its quantization, there is no direct evidence for that. It has been argued that development of detectors sensitive to individual gravitons is unlikely, and perhaps impossible. We argue here, however, that measurement of polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background due to a long wavelength stochastic background of gravitational waves from Inflation in the Early Universe would firmly establish the quantization of gravity.
    3 pages
     
  16. Sep 24, 2013 #2036

    marcus

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor
    Gold Member
    Dearly Missed

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.6304
    Quantum-Reduced Loop-Gravity: Relation with the Full Theory
    Emanuele Alesci, Francesco Cianfrani, Carlo Rovelli
    (Submitted on 24 Sep 2013)
    The quantum-reduced loop-gravity technique has been introduced for dealing with cosmological models. We show that it can be applied rather generically: anytime the spatial metric can be gauge-fixed to a diagonal form. The technique selects states based on reduced graphs with Livine-Speziale coherent intertwiners and could simplify the analysis of the dynamics in the full theory.
    5 pages
     
  17. Sep 26, 2013 #2037
    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.5266
    Asymptotic Flatness and Quantum Geometry
    Sandipan Sengupta
    (Submitted on 20 Sep 2013)
    We construct a canonical quantization of the two dimensional theory of a parametrized scalar field on noncompact spatial slices. The kinematics is built upon states that carry a label corresponding to continuous embeddings, in addition to discrete embedding and matter labels. The resulting quantum geometry admits a nondegenerate vacuum metric, which allows a consistent realization of the asymptotic conditions on the canonical fields. However, out of the full classical symmetry group of conformal isometries, only the subgroup of continuous global translations can be implemented. The quantum spacetime as characterised by a gauge invariant state is shown to be made up of discrete strips at the interior, and smooth at asymptotia. The analysis here is expected to be particularly relevant for a loop quantization of asymptotically flat gravity.
     
  18. Sep 26, 2013 #2038

    marcus

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor
    Gold Member
    Dearly Missed

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.6896
    Observational issues in loop quantum cosmology
    A. Barrau, T. Cailleteau, J. Grain, J. Mielczarek
    (Submitted on 26 Sep 2013)
    Quantum gravity is sometimes considered as a kind of metaphysical speculation. In this review, we show that, although still extremely difficult to reach, observational signatures can in fact be expected. The early universe is an invaluable laboratory to probe "Planck scale physics". Focusing on Loop Quantum Gravity as one of the best candidate for a non-perturbative and background-independant quantization of gravity, we detail some expected features.
    75 pages, invited topical review for Classical and Quantum Gravity
     
  19. Sep 29, 2013 #2039

    marcus

    User Avatar
    Science Advisor
    Gold Member
    Dearly Missed

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.7296
    Astrophysical constraints on Planck scale dissipative phenomena
    Stefano Liberati (SISSA and INFN, Trieste), Luca Maccione (LMU and MPP, Munich)
    (Submitted on 27 Sep 2013)
    The emergence of a classical spacetime from any quantum gravity model is still a subtle and only partially understood issue. If indeed space-time is arising as some sort of large scale condensate of more fundamental objects then it is natural to expect that matter, being a collective excitations of the spacetime constituents, will present modified kinematics at sufficiently high energies. We consider here the phenomenology of the dissipative effects necessarily arising in such a picture. Adopting dissipative hydrodynamics as a general framework for the description of the energy exchange between collective excitations and the spacetime fundamental degrees of freedom, we discuss how rates of decays for elementary particles can be derived from dispersion relations and used to provide strong constraints on the base of current astrophysical observations of high energy particles.
    5 pages, 1 figure

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.7273
    Renormalization group flow of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity at low energies
    Adriano Contillo, Stefan Rechenberger, Frank Saueressig
    (Submitted on 27 Sep 2013)
    The functional renormalization group equation for projectable Horava-Lifshitz gravity is used to derive the non-perturbative beta functions for the Newton's constant, cosmological constant and anisotropy parameter. The resulting coupled differential equations are studied in detail and exemplary RG trajectories are constructed numerically. The beta functions possess a non-Gaussian fixed point and a one-parameter family of Gaussian fixed points. One of the Gaussian fixed points corresponds to the Einstein-Hilbert action with vanishing cosmological constant and constitutes a saddle point with one IR-attractive direction. For RG trajectories dragged into this fixed point at low energies diffeomorphism invariance is restored. The emergence of general relativity from Horava-Lifshitz gravity can thus be understood as a crossover-phenomenon where the IR behavior of the theory is controlled by this Gaussian fixed point. In particular RG trajectories with a tiny positive cosmological constant also come with an anisotropy parameter which is compatible with experimental constraints, providing a mechanism for the approximate restoration of diffeomorphism invariance in the IR. The non-Gaussian fixed point is UV-attractive in all three coupling constants. Most likely, this fixed point is the imprint of Asymptotic Safety at the level of Horava-Lifshitz gravity.
    32 pages, 6 figures

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.7206
    Decoherence in quantum cosmology and the cosmological constant
    T. Asselmeyer-Maluga, J. Krol
    (Submitted on 27 Sep 2013)
    We discuss a spacetime having the topology of S3 x R but with a different smoothness structure. The initial state of the cosmos in our model is identified with a wildly embedded 3-sphere (or a fractal space). In previous work we showed that a wild embedding is obtained by a quantization of a usual (or tame) embedding. Then a wild embedding can be identified with a (geometrical) quantum state. During a decoherence process this wild 3-sphere is changed to a homology 3-sphere. We are able to calculate the decoherence time for this process. After the formation of the homology 3-sphere, we obtain a spacetime with an accelerated expansion enforced by a cosmological constant. The calculation of this cosmological constant gives a qualitative agreement with the current measured value.
    8 pages, 1 figure, accepted in MPLA

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.7248
    The equations of CCC
    Paul Tod
    (Submitted on 27 Sep 2013)
    I review the equations of Conformal Cyclic Cosmology given by Penrose. I suggest a slight modification to Penrose's prescription and show how this works out for FRW cosmologies and for Class A Bianchi cosmologies.
    9 pages. Corrected version of a talk given at the conference `The Mathematics of CCC: Mathematical Physics with Positive Lambda' organised by the Clay Mathematics Institute at the Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford from September 11-13, 2013

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.7271
    A Fundamental Solution to the CCC equation
    Ezra Newman
    (Submitted on 27 Sep 2013)
    We display a simple solution to the Penrose CCC scenario. For this solution we chose for the late stages of the previous aeon a FRW, k=0, universe with a both a cosmological constant and radiation (no mass) while for the early stages of the 'present' aeon we have again a FRW universe, k=0, with the same cosmological constant and again with radiation but with mass not yet present. The Penrose conditions force the parameters describing the radiation of the former and present aeons to be equal and the transition metric in the overlap region turns out to be flat. We further study how different rest-mass zero fields transition between the different conformally related regions. These (test) fields appears to easily allow perturbations of the geometry within the CCC scenario.
    13 pages

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.7267
    Cosmology and the Dark Matter Frontier
    L. Bergstrom
    (Submitted on 27 Sep 2013)
    A brief overview is given about some issues in current astroparticle physics, focusing on the dark matter (DM) problem, where the connection to LHC physics is particularly strong. New data from the Planck satellite has made the evidence in favour of the existence of DM even stronger. The favourite, though not the only, candidates for cosmological DM, weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), are being probed by a variety of experiments - direct detection through scattering in terrestrial detectors, indirect detection by observing products of annihilation of DM in the Galaxy, and finally searches at accelerators such as the LHC. The field is in the interesting situation that all of these search methods are reaching sensitivities where signals of DM may plausibly soon be found, and a vast array of models will be probed in the next few years. Of course, expectations for a positive signature are high, which calls for caution regarding 'false alarms'. Some of the presently puzzling and partly conflicting pieces of evidence for DM detection are discussed as well as expectations for the future.
    15 pages. Invited talk at the Nobel Symposium on LHC Physics, Krusenberg, Sweden, May 13-17, 2013
     
    Last edited: Sep 29, 2013
  20. Oct 3, 2013 #2040
    http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.0558
    A Quantum Model of Exaptation: Incorporating Potentiality into Evolutionary Theory
    Liane Gabora, Eric O. Scott, Stuart Kauffman
    (Submitted on 2 Oct 2013)
    The phenomenon of preadaptation, or exaptation (wherein a trait that originally evolved to solve one problem is co-opted to solve a new problem) presents a formidable challenge to efforts to describe biological phenomena using a classical (Kolmogorovian) mathematical framework. We develop a quantum framework for exaptation with examples from both biological and cultural evolution. The state of a trait is written as a linear superposition of a set of basis states, or possible forms the trait could evolve into, in a complex Hilbert space. These basis states are represented by mutually orthogonal unit vectors, each weighted by an amplitude term. The choice of possible forms (basis states) depends on the adaptive function of interest (e.g., ability to metabolize lactose or thermoregulate), which plays the role of the observable. Observables are represented by self-adjoint operators on the Hilbert space. The possible forms (basis states) corresponding to this adaptive function (observable) are called eigenstates. The framework incorporates key features of exaptation: potentiality, contextuality, nonseparability, and emergence of new features. However, since it requires that one enumerate all possible contexts, its predictive value is limited, consistent with the assertion that there exists no biological equivalent to "laws of motion" by which we can predict the evolution of the biosphere.

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.0693
    Constraining f(R) gravity with PLANCK data on galaxy cluster profiles
    I. De Martino, M. De Laurentis, F. Atrio-Barandela, S. Capozziello
    (Submitted on 2 Oct 2013)
    Models of $f(R)$ gravity that introduce corrections to the Newtonian potential in the weak field limit are tested at the scale of galaxy clusters. These models can explain the dynamics of spiral and elliptical galaxies without resorting to dark matter. We compute the pressure profiles of 579 galaxy clusters assuming that the gas is in hydrostatic equilibrium within the potential well of the modified gravitational field. The predicted profiles are compared with the average profile obtained by stacking the data of our cluster sample in the Planck foreground clean map SMICA. We find that the resulting profiles of these systems fit the data without requiring a dominant dark matter component, with model parameters similar to those required to explain the dynamics of galaxies. Our results do not rule out that clusters are dynamically dominated by Dark Matter but support the idea that Extended Theories of Gravity could provide an explanation to the dynamics of self-gravitating systems and to the present period of accelerated expansion, alternative to the concordance cosmological model.

    http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.0675
    Can a non-local model of gravity reproduce Dark Matter effects in agreement with MOND?
    Ivan Arraut
    (Submitted on 2 Oct 2013)
    I analyze the possibility of reproducing MONDian Dark Matter effects by using a non-local model of gravity. The model was used before in order to recreate screening effects for the Cosmological Constant ($\Lambda$) value. Although the model in the weak-field approximation (in static coordinates) can reproduce the field equations in agreement with the AQUAL Lagrangian, the solutions are scale dependent and cannot reproduce the same dynamics in agreement with MOND.
     
    Last edited: Oct 3, 2013
Share this great discussion with others via Reddit, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook

Have something to add?
Draft saved Draft deleted