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Loop-and-allied QG bibliography

  1. Nov 19, 2017 #2541


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    Towards the map of quantum gravity
    Jakub Mielczarek, Tomasz Trześniewski
    (Submitted on 24 Aug 2017 (v1), last revised 5 Oct 2017 (this version, v2))
    In this paper we point out some possible links between different approaches to quantum gravity and theories of the Planck scale physics. In particular, connections between Loop Quantum Gravity, Causal Dynamical Triangulations, Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity, Asymptotic Safety scenario, Quantum Graphity, deformations of relativistic symmetries and nonlinear phase space models are discussed. The main focus is on quantum deformations of the Hypersurface Deformations Algebra and Poincar\'{e} algebra, nonlinear structure of phase space, the running dimension of spacetime and nontrivial phase diagram of quantum gravity. We present an attempt to arrange the observed relations in the form of a graph, highlighting different aspects of quantum gravity. The analysis is performed in the spirit of a mind map, which represents the architectural approach to the studied theory, being a natural way to describe the properties of a complex system. We hope that the constructed graphs (maps) will turn out to be helpful in uncovering the global picture of quantum gravity as a particular complex system and serve as a useful guide for the researchers.

    Extended Phase Space Analysis of Interacting Dark Energy Models in Loop Quantum Cosmology
    Hmar Zonunmawia, Wompherdeiki Khyllep, Nandan Roy, Jibitesh Dutta, Nicola Tamanini
    (Submitted on 25 Aug 2017)
    The present work deals with the dynamical system investigation of interacting dark energy models (quintessence and phantom) in the framework of Loop Quantum Cosmology by taking into account a broad class of self-interacting scalar field potentials. The main reason for studying potentials beyond the exponential type is to obtain additional critical points which can yield more interesting cosmological solutions. The stability of critical points and the asymptotic behavior of the phase space are analyzed using dynamical system tools and numerical techniques. We study two class of interacting dark energy models and consider two specific potentials as examples: the hyperbolic potential and the inverse power-law potential. We found a rich and interesting phenomenology including the avoidance of big rip singularities due to loop quantum effects, smooth and non-linear transitions from matter domination to dark energy domination and finite periods of phantom domination with dynamical crossing of the phantom barrier.

    A non-polynomial gravity formulation for Loop Quantum Cosmology bounce
    Stefano Chinaglia, Aimeric Colleaux, Sergio Zerbini
    (Submitted on 29 Aug 2017 (v1), last revised 5 Sep 2017 (this version, v2))
    Recently the so-called mimetic gravity approach has been used to obtain corrections to Friedmann equation of General Relativity similar to the ones present in loop quantum cosmology. In this paper, we propose an alternative way to derive this modified Friedmann equation via the so-called non-polynomial gravity approach, which consists in adding geometric non-polynomial higher derivative terms to Hilbert-Einstein action, which are nonetheless polynomials and lead to second order differential equation in Friedmann-Lema\^itre-Robertson-Walker spacetimes. Our explicit action turns out to be a realization of the Helling proposal of effective action with infinite number of terms. The model is investigated also in presence of non vanishing cosmological constant and a new exact bounce solution is found and studied.

    Noncommutativity in Effective Loop Quantum Cosmology
    Abraham Espinoza-García (UPIIG-IPN, México), Efraín Torres-Lomas (UG, México)
    (Submitted on 11 Sep 2017 (v1), last revised 12 Sep 2017 (this version, v2))
    We construct two noncommutative extensions of the Loop Quantum Cosmology effective scheme for the open FLRW model with a standard scalar field with quadratic potential. Firstly, noncommutativity is implemented in the configuration sector only (among the holonomy variable and the matter degree of freedom). We show that this type of noncommutativity seems to retain key features of the Loop Quantum Cosmology paradigm for a free field; however, when considering the addition of a quadratic potential,this compatibility weakens regarding the trajectories followed by the scalar field. Secondly, noncommutativity is implemented in the momentum sector (among the momentum associated to the holonomy variable and the momentum associated to the matter field). In the free case, the only effect of this noncommutativity is that of making the volume function to grow faster, retaining key features of the Loop Quantum Cosmology paradigm. We show that, when considering a quadratic potential, this second kind of noncommutativity is more favored than the first one in regard to the trajectories followed by the scalar field.

    Von-Neumann Stability and Singularity Resolution in Loop Quantized Schwarzschild Black Hole
    Alec Yonika, Gaurav Khanna, Parampreet Singh
    (Submitted on 19 Sep 2017)
    Though loop quantization of several spacetimes has exhibited existence of a bounce via an explicit evolution of states using numerical simulations, the question about the black hole interior has remained open. To answer this question, it is important to first understand the stability of the quantum Hamiltonian constraint. We take first steps towards addressing these issues for a loop quantization of the Schwarzschild interior. The von-Neumann stability analysis is performed using separability of solutions as well as a full two dimensional quantum difference equation. This results in a condition which translates to stability for black holes which have a very large mass compared to the Planck mass. In addition, stability analysis leads to a constraint on the localization of the allowed states. With the caveat of using kinematical norm, Gaussian states are evolved using the quantum difference equation and singularity resolution is obtained. Bounce is found for one of the triad variables, but for the other triad variable singularity resolution amounts to a non-singular passage through the zero volume. States are found to be peaked at the classical trajectory for a long time before and after the singularity resolution, and retain their semi-classical character across the zero volume.

    Random Invariant Tensors
    Youning Li, Muxin Han, Dong Ruan, Bei Zeng
    (Submitted on 25 Sep 2017)
    Invariant tensors are states in the (local) SU(2) tensor product representation but invariant under global SU(2) action. They are of importance in the study of loop quantum gravity. A random tensor is an ensemble of tensor states. An average over the ensemble is carried out when computing any physical quantities. The random tensor exhibits a phenomenon of `concentration of measure', saying that for any bipartition, the expected value of entanglement entropy of its reduced density matrix is asymptotically the maximal possible as the local dimension goes to infinity. This is also true even when the average is over the invariant subspace instead of the whole space for 4−valent tensors, although its entropy deficit is divergent. One might expect that for n≥5, n−valent random invariant tensor would behavior similarly. However, we show that, the expected entropy deficit of reduced density matrix of such n−valent random invariant tensor from maximum, is not divergent but a finite number. Under some special situation, the number could be even smaller than half a bit, which is the deficit of random pure state over the whole Hilbert space from maximum.

    Intertwiner Entanglement on Spin Networks
    Etera R. Livine
    (Submitted on 25 Sep 2017)
    In the context of quantum gravity, we clarify entanglement calculations on spin networks: we distinguish the gauge-invariant entanglement between intertwiners located at the nodes and the entanglement between spin states located on the network's links. We compute explicitly these two notions of entanglement between neighboring nodes and show that they are always related to the typical ln(2j+1) term depending on the spin j living on the link between them. This ln(2j+1) contribution comes from looking at non-gauge invariant states, thus we interpret it as gauge-breaking and unphysical. In particular, this confirms that pure spin network basis states do not carry any physical entanglement, so that true entanglement and correlations in loop quantum gravity comes from spin or intertwiner superpositions.

    Simplicity constraints: a 3d toy-model for Loop Quantum Gravity
    Christoph Charles
    (Submitted on 26 Sep 2017)
    In Loop Quantum Gravity, tremendous progress has been made using the Ashtekar-Barbero variables. These variables, defined in a gauge-fixing of the theory, correspond to a parametrization of the solutions of the so-called simplicity constraints. Their geometrical interpretation is however unsatisfactory as they do not constitute a space-time connection. It would be possible to resolve this point by using a full Lorentz connection or, equivalently, by using the self-dual Ashtekar variables. This leads however to simplicity constraints or reality conditions which are notoriously difficult to implement in the quantum theory.
    We explore in this paper the possibility of imposing such constraints at the quantum level in the context of canonical quantization. To do so, we define a simpler model, in 3d, with similar constraints by extending the phase space to include an independent vielbein. We define the classical model and show that a precise quantum theory by gauge-unfixing can be defined out of it, completely equivalent to the standard 3d euclidean quantum gravity.
    We discuss possible future explorations around this model as it could help as a stepping stone to define full-fledged covariant Loop Quantum Gravity.

    The emergence of 3+1D Einstein gravity from topological gravity
    Zheng-Cheng Gu
    (Submitted on 28 Sep 2017)
    Quantum field theory successfully explains the origin of all fundamental forces except gravity due to the renormalizability and ultraviolet(UV) completion puzzles. The ADS/CFT correspondence conjecture might naturally resolve the above two puzzles for ADS space gravity. In this paper, we propose a topological scenario to resolve the above two puzzles for generic cases(e.g., with or without cosmological constant term). First, we propose a 3+1D topological (quantum) gravity theory which is perturbatively renormalizable and potentially UV complete, this step can be regarded as a straightforward generalization of Edward Witten's Chern-Simons theory proposal for 2+1D topological gravity. Then, we show that Einstein-Cartan equation and classical space-time naturally emerge from topological (quantum) gravity via loop condensation. The second step is a unique feature in 3+1D and it might even naturally explain why our space-time is four dimensional. Experimentally measurable low energy predictions are also discussed.

    Cosmological Coherent State Expectation Values in LQG I. Isotropic Kinematics
    Andrea Dapor, Klaus Liegener
    (Submitted on 11 Oct 2017)
    This is the first paper of a series dedicated to LQG coherent states and cosmology. The concept is based on the effective dynamics program of Loop Quantum Cosmology, where the classical dynamics generated by the expectation value of the Hamiltonian on semiclassical states is found to be in agreement with the quantum evolution of such states. We ask the question of whether this expectation value agrees with the one obtained in the full theory. The answer is in the negative. This series of papers is dedicated to detailing the computations that lead to that surprising result. In the current paper, we construct the family of coherent states in LQG which represent flat (k=0) Robertson-Walker spacetimes, and present the tools needed to compute expectation values of polynomial operators in holonomy and flux on such states. These tools will be applied to the LQG Hamiltonian operator (in Thiemann regularization) in the second paper of the series. The third paper will present an extension to k≠0 cosmologies and a comparison with alternative regularizations of the Hamiltonian.

    Entanglement entropy and correlations in loop quantum gravity
    Alexandre Feller, Etera R. Livine
    (Submitted on 12 Oct 2017)
    Black hole entropy is one of the few windows toward the quantum aspects of gravitation and its study over the years have highlighted the holographic nature of gravity. At the non-perturbative level in quantum gravity, promising explanations are being explored in terms of the entanglement entropy between regions of space. In the context of loop quantum gravity, this translates into the analysis of the correlations between regions of the spin network states defining the quantum state of geometry of space. In this paper, we explore a class of states, motivated by results in condensed matter physics, satisfying an area law for entanglement entropy and having non-trivial correlations. We highlight that entanglement comes from holonomy operators acting on loops crossing the boundary of the region.

    On the volume simplicity constraint in the EPRL spin foam model
    Benjamin Bahr, Vadim Belov
    (Submitted on 17 Oct 2017)
    We propose a quantum version of the quadratic volume simplicity constraint for the EPRL spin foam model. It relies on a formula for the volume of 4-dimensional polyhedra, depending on its bivectors and the knotting class of its boundary graph. While this leads to no further condition for the 4-simplex, the constraint becomes non-trivial for more complicated boundary graphs. We show that, in the semi-classical limit of the hypercuboidal graph, the constraint turns into the geometricity condition observed recently by several authors.

    Anomaly free cosmological perturbations with generalised holonomy correction in loop quantum cosmology
    Yu Han, Molin Liu
    (Submitted on 14 Nov 2017)
    In the spatially flat case of loop quantum cosmology, the connection k¯ is usually replaced by the μ¯ holonomy sin(μ¯k)μ¯ in the effective theory. In this paper, instead of the μ¯ scheme, we use a generalised, undertermined function g(k¯,p¯) to represent the holonomy and by using the approach of anomaly free constraint algebra we fix all the counter terms in the constraints and find the restriction on the form of g(k¯,p¯), then we derive the gauge invariant equations of motion of the scalar, tensor and vector perturbations and study the inflationary power spectra with generalised holonomy corrections.

    Connecting Loop Quantum Gravity and String Theory via Quantum Geometry
    Deepak Vaid
    (Submitted on 15 Nov 2017)
    We argue that String Theory and Loop Quantum Gravity can be thought of as describing different regimes of a single unified theory of quantum gravity. LQG can be thought of as providing the pre-geometric exoskeleton out of which macroscopic geometry emerges and String Theory then becomes the \emph{effective} theory which describes the dynamics of that exoskeleton. The core of the argument rests on the claim that the Nambu-Goto action of String Theory can be viewed as the expectation value of the LQG area operator evaluated on the string worldsheet.

    A Renormalizable SYK-type Tensor Field Theory
    Joseph Ben Geloun, Vincent Rivasseau
    (Submitted on 16 Nov 2017)
    In this paper we introduce a simple field theoretic version of the Carrozza-Tanasa-Klebanov-Tarnopolsky (CTKT) "uncolored" holographic tensor model. It gives a more familiar interpretation to the previously abstract modes of the SYK or CTKT models in terms of momenta. We choose for the tensor propagator the usual Fermionic propagator of condensed matter, with a spherical Fermi surface, but keep the CTKT interactions. Hence our field theory can also be considered as an ordinary condensed matter model with a non-local and non-rotational invariant interaction. Using a multiscale analysis we prove that this field theory is just renormalizable to all orders of perturbation theory in the ultraviolet regime.

    Gravity Induced Non-Local Effects in the Standard Model
    S. O. Alexeyev, X. Calmet, B. N. Latosh
    (Submitted on 16 Nov 2017)
    We show that the non-locality recently identified in quantum gravity using resummation techniques propagates to the matter sector of the theory. We describe these non-local effects using effective field theory techniques. We derive the complete set of non-local effective operators at order NG2 for theories involving scalar, spinor, and vector fields. We then use recent data from the Large Hadron Collider to set a bound on the scale of space-time non-locality and find M⋆>3×10−11 GeV.
    Last edited: Nov 20, 2017
  2. Dec 3, 2017 #2542


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    AdS2 holography and the SYK model
    Gábor Sárosi
    (Submitted on 22 Nov 2017)
    These are lecture notes based on a series of lectures presented at the XIII Modave Summer School in Mathematical physics aimed at PhD students and young postdocs. The goal is to give an introduction to some of the recent developments in understanding holography in two bulk dimensions, and its connection to microscopics of near extremal black holes. The first part reviews the motivation to study, and the problems (and their interpretations) with holography for AdS2 spaces. The second part is about the Jackiw-Teitelboim theory and nearly-AdS2 spaces. The third part introduces the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model, reviews some of the basic calculations and discusses what features make the model exciting.

    Propagators for gauge-invariant observables in cosmology
    Markus B. Fröb, William C. C. Lima
    (Submitted on 22 Nov 2017)
    We make a proposal for gauge-invariant observables in perturbative quantum gravity in cosmological spacetimes, building on the recent work of Brunetti et al. [JHEP 08 (2016) 032]. These observables are relational, and are obtained by evaluating the field operator in a field-dependent coordinate system. We show that it is possible to define this coordinate system such that the non-localities inherent in any higher-order observable in quantum gravity are causal, i.e., the value of the gauge-invariant observable at a point x only depends on the metric and inflation perturbations in the past light cone of x. We then construct propagators for the metric and inflaton perturbations in a gauge adapted to that coordinate system, which simplifies the calculation of loop corrections, and give explicit expressions for relevant cases: matter- and radiation-dominated eras and slow-roll inflation.

    Loop Quantum Cosmology Corrected Gauss-Bonnet Singular Cosmology
    K. Kleidis, V.K. Oikonomou
    (Submitted on 25 Nov 2017)
    In this work we investigate which Loop Quantum Cosmology corrected Gauss-Bonnet F(G) gravity can realize two singular cosmological scenarios, the intermediate inflation and the singular bounce scenarios. The intermediate inflation scenario has a Type III sudden singularity at t=0, while the singular bounce has a soft Type IV singularity. By using perturbative techniques, we find the holonomy corrected F(G) gravities that generate at leading order the aforementioned cosmologies and we also argue that the effect of the holonomy corrections is minor to the power spectrum of the primordial curvature perturbations of the classical theory.

    Ryu-Takayanagi Formula for Symmetric Random Tensor Networks
    Goffredo Chirco, Daniele Oriti, Mingyi Zhang
    (Submitted on 27 Nov 2017)
    We consider the special case of Random Tensor Networks (RTN) endowed with gauge symmetry constraints on each tensor. We compute the R\`enyi entropy for such states and recover the Ryu-Takayanagi (RT) formula in the large bond regime. The result provides first of all an interesting new extension of the existing derivations of the RT formula for RTNs. Moreover, this extension of the RTN formalism brings it in direct relation with (tensorial) group field theories (and spin networks), and thus provides new tools for realizing the tensor network/geometry duality in the context of background independent quantum gravity, and for importing quantum gravity tools in tensor network research.

    The time-dependent mass of cosmological perturbations in the hybrid and dressed metric approaches to loop quantum cosmology
    Beatriz Elizaga Navascués, Daniel Martín de Blas, Guillermo A. Mena Marugán
    (Submitted on 29 Nov 2017)
    Loop quantum cosmology has recently been applied in order to extend the analysis of primordial perturbations to the Planck era and discuss the possible effects of quantum geometry on the cosmic microwave background. Two approaches to loop quantum cosmology with admissible ultraviolet behaviour leading to predictions that are compatible with observations are the so-called hybrid and dressed metric approaches. In spite of their similarities and relations, we show in this work that the effective equations that they provide for the evolution of the tensor and scalar perturbations are somewhat different. When backreaction is neglected, the discrepancy appears only in the time-dependent mass term of the corresponding field equations. We explain the origin of this difference, arising from the distinct quantization procedures. Besides, given the privileged role that the Big Bounce plays in loop quantum cosmology, e.g. as a natural instant of time to set initial conditions for the perturbations, we also analyze the positivity of the time-dependent mass when this bounce occurs. We prove that the mass of the tensor perturbations is positive in the hybrid approach when the kinetic contribution to the energy density of the inflaton dominates over its potential, as well as for a considerably large sector of backgrounds around that situation, while this mass is always nonpositive in the dressed metric approach. Similar results are demonstrated for the scalar perturbations in a sector of background solutions that includes the kinetically dominated ones, namely, the mass then is positive for the hybrid approach, whereas it typically becomes negative in the dressed metric case. More precisely, this last statement is strictly valid when the potential is quadratic for values of the inflaton mass that are phenomenologically favored.

    The loop quantum cosmology bounce as a Kasner transition
    Edward Wilson-Ewing
    (Submitted on 29 Nov 2017)
    For the Bianchi type I space-time (vacuum or with a massless scalar field), the loop quantum cosmology bounce can be viewed as a rapid transition between two classical solutions, with a simple transformation rule relating the Kasner exponents of the two epochs. This transformation rule can be extended to other Bianchi space-times under the assumption that during the loop quantum cosmology bounce the contribution of the spatial curvature to the Hamiltonian constraint is negligible compared to the kinetic terms. For the vacuum Bianchi type IX space-time there are transformation rules for how each of the parameters characterizing the Kasner epochs change during the bounce. This provides a quantum gravity extension to the Mixmaster dynamics of general relativity, and may have interesting implications for the Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz conjecture.
    Last edited: Feb 18, 2018
  3. Dec 23, 2017 #2543


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    Covariance and Anomaly-freedom in symmetry-reduced self dual models of Loop Quantum Gravity
    Jibril Ben Achour, Suddhasattwa Brahma
    (Submitted on 11 Dec 2017)
    In effective models of loop quantum gravity (LQG), the curvature of the connection in the Hamiltonian constraint is regularised based on the holonomy of the connection, prior to quantization. At this very first step, whether the holonomy-corrected system of "first-class" constraints form a closed algebra such that they still act as generators of gauge transformations, and consequently eliminate the same number of spurious degrees of freedom, is a crucial question which needs to be clarified before dealing with quantum dynamics. In the real Ashtekar-Barbero framework, such holonomy-corrected models have typically a deformed notion of covariance when no local degrees of freedom are involved, and fail to be (gauge-)covariant in models exhibiting local physical degrees of freedom. Recently discovered no-go results in models involving non-perturbative inhomogeneity challenge the possibility of including holonomy modifications in realistic scenarios depicting gravitational collapse of scalar matter or cylindrical gravitational waves. Moreover, it is known that the inclusion of the μ¯-scheme, which implements a coarse-graining procedure at the effective level, leads to additional difficulties in such models. In this article, we show how such conclusions can be by-passed when working in the self dual formulation, i.e. we investigate the fate of covariance in holonomy-corrected models of LQG based on the original self dual Ashtekar formulation. We consider two systems of particular interest: spherically symmetric gravity minimally coupled to a scalar field and (unpolarized) Gowdy cosmology. Both have local degrees of freedom and, therefore, represent midisuperspace models beyond what has been studied in the LQG literature.

    On the distribution of the eigenvalues of the area operator in loop quantum gravity
    J. Fernando Barbero, Juan Margalef-Bentabol, Eduardo J. S. Villaseñor
    (Submitted on 19 Dec 2017)
    We study the distribution of the eigenvalues of the area operator in loop quantum gravity concentrating on the part of the spectrum relevant for isolated horizons. We first show that the approximations relying on integer partitions are not sufficient to obtain the asymptotic behaviour of the eigenvalue distribution for large areas. We then develop a method, based on Laplace transforms, that provides a very accurate solution to this problem. The representation that we get is valid for any area and can be used to obtain its asymptotics in the large area limit.

    Cosmological evolution as squeezing: a toy model for group field cosmology
    Eugene Adjei, Steffen Gielen, Wolfgang Wieland
    (Submitted on 19 Dec 2017)
    We present a simple model of quantum cosmology based on the group field theory (GFT) approach to quantum gravity. The model is formulated on a subspace of the GFT Fock space for the quanta of geometry, with a fixed volume per quantum. In this Hilbert space, cosmological expansion corresponds to the generation of new quanta. Our main insight is that the evolution of a flat FLRW universe with a massless scalar field can be described on this Hilbert space as squeezing, familiar from quantum optics. As in GFT cosmology, we find that the three-volume satisfies an effective Friedmann equation similar to the one of loop quantum cosmology, connecting the classical contracting and expanding solutions by a quantum bounce. The only free parameter in the model is identified with Newton's constant. We also comment on the possible topological interpretation of our squeezed states. This paper can serve an introduction into the main ideas of GFT cosmology without requiring the full GFT formalism; our results can also motivate new developments in GFT and its cosmological application.
  4. Feb 3, 2018 #2544


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    A new bound on polymer quantization via an opto-mechanical setup
    M. Khodadi, K. Nozari, S. Dey, A. Bhat, Mir Faizal
    (Submitted on 31 Dec 2017)
    The existence of a minimal measurable length as a characteristic length in the Planck scale is one of the main features of quantum gravity and has been widely explored in the context. Various different deformations of spacetime have been employed successfully for the purpose. However, polymer quantization approach is a relatively new and dynamic field towards the quantum gravity phenomenology, which emerges from the symmetric sector of the loop quantum gravity. In this article, we extend the standard ideas of polymer quantization to find a new and tighter bound on the polymer deformation parameter. Our protocol relies on an opto-mechanical experimental setup that was originally proposed in Ref.\cite{ref:Igor} to explore some interesting phenomena by embedding the minimal length into the standard canonical commutation relation. We extend this scheme to probe the \emph{polymer length} deformed canonical commutation relation of the center of mass mode of a mechanical oscillator with a mass around the Planck scale. The method utilizes the novelty of exchanging the relevant mechanical information with a high intensity optical pulse inside an optical cavity. We also demonstrate that our proposal is within the reach of the current technologies and, thus, it could uncover a decent realization of quantum gravitational phenomena thorough a simple table-top experiment.

    Emergent de Sitter epoch of the quantum Cosmos
    Mehdi Assanioussi, Andrea Dapor, Klaus Liegener, Tomasz Pawłowski
    (Submitted on 2 Jan 2018)
    The quantum nature of the Big Bang is reexamined in the framework of Loop Quantum Cosmology. The strict application of a regularization procedure to the Hamiltonian, originally developed for the Hamiltonian in loop quantum gravity, leads to a qualitative modification of the bounce paradigm. Quantum gravity effects still lead to a quantum bounce connecting deterministically large classical Universes. However, the evolution features a large epoch of de Sitter Universe, with emergent cosmological constant of Planckian order, smoothly transiting into a flat expanding Universe.

    Black Holes as Quantum Gravity Condensates
    Daniele Oriti, Daniele Pranzetti, Lorenzo Sindoni
    (Submitted on 4 Jan 2018)
    We model spherically symmetric black holes within the group field theory formalism for quantum gravity via generalised condensate states, involving sums over arbitrarily refined graphs (dual to 3d triangulations). The construction relies heavily on both the combinatorial tools of random tensor models and the quantum geometric data of loop quantum gravity, both part of the group field theory formalism. Armed with the detailed microscopic structure, we compute the entropy associated with the black hole horizon, which turns out to be equivalently the Boltzmann entropy of its microscopic degrees of freedom and the entanglement entropy between the inside and outside regions. We recover the area law under very general conditions, as well as the Bekenstein-Hawking formula. The result is also shown to be generically independent of any specific value of the Immirzi parameter.

    Characteristic Time Scales for the Geometry Transition of a Black Hole to a White Hole from Spinfoams
    Marios Christodoulou, Fabio D'Ambrosio
    (Submitted on 9 Jan 2018)
    Quantum fluctuations of the metric provide a decay mechanism for black holes, through a transition to a white hole geometry. Old perplexing results by Ambrus and H\'aj\'i\v{c}ek and more recent results by Barcel\'o, Carballo--Rubio and Garay, indicate a characteristic time scale of this process that scales linearly with the mass of the collapsed object. We compute the characteristic time scales involved in the quantum process using Lorentzian Loop Quantum Gravity amplitudes, corroborating these results but reinterpreting and clarifying their physical meaning. We first review and streamline the classical set up, and distinguish and discuss the different time scales involved. We conclude that the aforementioned results concern a time scale that is different from the lifetime, the latter being the much longer time related to the probability of the process to take place. We recover the exponential scaling of the lifetime in the mass, as expected from na\"ive semiclassical arguments for the probability of a tunneling phenomenon to occur.

    Bohmian quantum gravity and cosmology
    Nelson Pinto-Neto, Ward Struyve
    (Submitted on 10 Jan 2018)
    Quantum gravity aims to describe gravity in quantum mechanical terms. How exactly this needs to be done remains an open question. Various proposals have been put on the table, such as canonical quantum gravity, loop quantum gravity, string theory, etc. These proposals often encounter technical and conceptual problems. In this chapter, we focus on canonical quantum gravity and discuss how many conceptual problems, such as the measurement problem and the problem of time, can be overcome by adopting a Bohmian point of view. In a Bohmian theory (also called pilot-wave theory or de Broglie-Bohm theory, after its originators de Broglie and Bohm), a system is described by certain variables in space-time such as particles or fields or something else, whose dynamics depends on the wave function. In the context of quantum gravity, these variables are a space-time metric and suitable variable for the matter fields (e.g., particles or fields). In addition to solving the conceptual problems, the Bohmian approach yields new applications and predictions in quantum cosmology. These include space-time singularity resolution, new types of semi-classical approximations to quantum gravity, and approximations for quantum perturbations moving in a quantum background.

    Spin networks on adiabatic quantum computer
    Jakub Mielczarek
    (Submitted on 18 Jan 2018)
    The article is addressing a possibility of implementation of spin network states on adiabatic quantum computer. The discussion is focused on application of currently available technologies and analyzes a concrete example of D-Wave machine. A class of simple spin network states which can be implemented on the Chimera graph architecture of the D-Wave quantum processor is introduced. However, extension beyond the currently available quantum processor topologies is required to simulate more sophisticated spin network states, which may inspire development of new generations of adiabatic quantum computers. A possibility of simulating Loop Quantum Gravity is discussed and a method of solving a graph non-changing scalar (Hamiltonian) constraint with the use of adiabatic quantum computations is proposed.

    Towards Cosmological Dynamics from Loop Quantum Gravity
    Bao-Fei Li, Parampreet Singh, Anzhong Wang
    (Submitted on 22 Jan 2018 (v1), last revised 1 Feb 2018 (this version, v2))
    We present a systematic study of the cosmological dynamics resulting from an effective Hamiltonian, recently derived in loop quantum gravity using Thiemann's regularization and earlier obtained in loop quantum cosmology (LQC) by keeping the Lorentzian term explicit in the Hamiltonian constraint. We show that quantum geometric effects result in higher than quadratic corrections in energy density in comparison to LQC causing a non-singular bounce. Dynamics can be described by the Hamilton's or the Friedmann-Raychaudhuri equations, but the map between the two descriptions is not one-to-one. A careful analysis resolves the tension on symmetric versus asymmetric bounce in this model, showing that the bounce must be asymmetric and symmetric bounce is physically inconsistent, in contrast to the standard LQC. In addition, the current observations only allow a scenario where the pre-bounce branch is asymptotically de Sitter, similar to a quantization of the Schwarzschild interior in LQC, and the post-bounce branch yields the classical general relativity. For a quadratic potential, we find that a slow-roll inflation generically happens after the bounce, which is quite similar to what happens in LQC.
    Last edited: Feb 17, 2018
  5. Feb 17, 2018 #2545


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    Space and Time in Loop Quantum Gravity
    Carlo Rovelli
    (Submitted on 7 Feb 2018)
    Quantum gravity is expected to require modifications of the notions of space and time. I discuss and clarify how this happens in Loop Quantum Gravity.

    Gravitation in terms of observables
    Rodolfo Gambini, Jorge Pullin
    (Submitted on 7 Feb 2018)
    In the 1960's, Mandelstam proposed a new approach to gauge theories and gravity based on loops. The program for gauge theories was completed for Yang--Mills theories by Gambini and Trias in the 1980's. Gauge theories could be understood as representations of certain group: the group of loops. The same formalism could not be implemented at that time for the gravitational case. Here we would like to propose an extension to the case of gravity. The resulting theory is described in terms of loops and open paths and can provide the underpinning for a new quantum representation for gravity distinct from the one used in loop quantum gravity or string theory. In it, space-time points are emergent entities that would only have quasi-classical status. The formulation may be given entirely in terms of Dirac observables that form a complete set of gauge invariant functions that completely define the Riemannian geometry of the spacetime. At the quantum level this formulation will lead to a reduced phase space quantization free of any constraints.
  6. Mar 11, 2018 #2546


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    Radial gauge fixing of first order gravity
    Emanuele Alesci, Costantino Pacilio, Daniele Pranzetti
    (Submitted on 17 Feb 2018)
    We consider the first order connection formulation of 4D general relativity in the radial gauge. We show how the partial gauge fixing of the phase space canonical coordinates leads to the appearance of second class constraints in the theory. We employ the gauge unfixing procedure in order to successfully complete the Dirac treatment of the system. While equivalent to the inversion of the Dirac matrix, the gauge unfixing allows us to work directly with the reduced phase space and the ordinary Poisson bracket. At the same time, we explicitly derive the new set of residual first class constraints preserving the partial gauge fixing, which are linear combinations of the original constraints, and these turn out to contain nonlinear terms. While providing an explicit example of how to consistently recast general relativity in a given partial gauge, the main motivation of this classical analysis is the application of the Quantum Reduced Loop Gravity program to a Schwarzschild black hole geometry.

    The constraint algebra in Smolins' G→0 limit of 4d Euclidean Gravity
    Madhavan Varadarajan
    (Submitted on 20 Feb 2018)
    Smolin's generally covariant GNewton→0 limit of 4d Euclidean gravity is a useful toy model for the study of the constraint algebra in Loop Quantum Gravity. In particular, the commutator between its Hamiltonian constraints has a metric dependent structure function. While a prior LQG like construction of non-trivial anomaly free constraint commutators for the model exists, that work suffers from two defects. First, Smolin's remarks on the inability of the quantum dynamics to generate propagation effects apply. Second, the construction only yields the action of a single Hamiltonian constraint together with the action of its commutator through a continuum limit of corresponding discrete approximants; the continuum limit of a product of 2 or more constraints does not exist. Here, we incorporate changes in the quantum dynamics through structural modifications in the choice of discrete approximants to the quantum Hamiltonian constraint. The new structure is motivated by that responsible for propagation in an LQG like quantization of Paramaterized Field Theory and significantly alters the space of physical states. We study the off shell constraint algebra of the model in the context of these structural changes and show that the continuum limit action of multiple products of Hamiltonian constraints is (a) supported on an appropriate domain of states (b) yields anomaly free commutators between pairs of Hamiltonian constraints and (c) is diffeomorphism covariant. Many of our considerations seem robust enough to be applied to the setting of 4d Euclidean gravity.

    Loop Quantum Corrected Einstein Yang-Mills Black Holes
    Mason Protter, Andrew DeBenedictis
    (Submitted on 26 Feb 2018)
    In this paper we study the homogeneous interiors of black holes possessing SU(2) Yang-Mills fields subject to corrections inspired by loop quantum gravity. The systems studied possess both magnetic and induced electric Yang-Mills fields. We consider the system of equations both with and without Wilson loop corrections to the Yang-Mills potential. The structure of the Yang-Mills Hamiltonian along with the restriction to homogeneity allows for an anomaly free effective quantization. In particular we study the bounce which replaces the classical singularity and the behavior of the Yang-Mills fields in the quantum corrected interior, which possesses topology R×S2. Beyond the bounce the magnitude of the Yang-Mills electric field asymptotically grows monotonically. This results in an ever expanding R sector even though the two-sphere volume is asymptotically constant. The results are similar with and without Wilson loop corrections on the Yang-Mills potential.

    Geometry Transition in Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity
    Christodoulou Marios
    (Submitted on 1 Mar 2018)
    In this manuscript we present a calculation of a physical observable in a non-perturbative quantum gravitational physical process from covariant Loop Quantum Gravity. The process regards the transition of a trapped region to an anti--trapped region, treated as a quantum geometry transition akin to gravitational tunneling. Figuratively speaking, this is a quantum transition of a black hole to a white hole. The physical observables are the characteristic timescales in which the process takes place.
    After an introduction, we begin with two chapters that review, define and extend main tools relevant to Lorentzian spinfoams and their semiclassical limit. We then dedicate a chapter to the classical exterior spacetime, which provides the setup for the problem. In the last two chapters, we arrive at an explicit, analytically well-defined and finite expression for a transition amplitude describing this process and use the semiclassical approximation to estimate the relevant amplitudes for an arbitrary choice of boundary conditions. We conclude that the transition is predicted to be allowed by LQG, with a characteristic duration that is linear in the mass, when the process takes place. The probability for the process to take place is exponentially suppressed but non-zero, resulting to a long lifetime.
    Comments: PhD thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics. Defended at the Center for Theoretical Physics/CNRS/Aix-Marseille University, the 23rd of October 2017. The manuscript is written in English and begins with a short summary in French

    Effective line elements and black-hole models in canonical (loop) quantum gravity
    Martin Bojowald, Suddhasattwa Brahma, Dong-han Yeom
    (Submitted on 3 Mar 2018)
    Canonical quantization is often used to suggest new effects in quantum gravity, in the dynamics as well as the structure of space-time. Usually, possible phenomena are first seen in a modified version of the classical dynamics, for instance in an effective Friedmann equation, but there should also be implications for a modified space-time structure. Quantum space-time effects, however, are often ignored in this setting because they are not obvious: they require a careful analysis of gauge transformations and the anomaly problem. It is shown here how modified space-time structures and effective line elements can be derived unambiguously, provided an off-shell anomaly-free system of modified constraints exists. The resulting effective line elements reveal signature change as an inescapable consequence of non-classical gauge transformations in the presence of holonomy modifications. The general framework is then specialized to black-hole models in loop quantum gravity. In contrast to previous studies, a self-consistent space-time structure is taken into account, leading to a new picture of black-hole interiors.

    Loop quantum deformation of a Schwarzschild black hole: an effective metric
    Jibril Ben Achour, Frédéric Lamy, Hongguang Liu, Karim Noui
    (Submitted on 3 Mar 2018)
    We consider the modified Einstein equations obtained in the framework of effective loop quantum gravity for spherically symmetric space-times. When one takes into account (only point-wise holonomy) quantum corrections, the deformation of Einstein equations is parametrized by a function f(x) of one variable . We solve explicitly these equations for static black holes and find the effective metric in the region inside the black hole for any f(x). When f(x) is the usual function used in loop quantum gravity, the effective metric presents strong similarities with the Reissner-Nordstrom metric (with a regular trapped region): it tends to the expected Schwarzschild metric when one approaches the outer horizon, and the inner horizon replaces the original Schwarzschild singularity. We discuss the possibility to extend the solution outside the trapped region, and possible phenomenological consequences of our results.

    The Bronstein hypercube of quantum gravity
    Daniele Oriti
    (Submitted on 7 Mar 2018 (v1), last revised 8 Mar 2018 (this version, v2))
    We argue for enlarging the traditional view of quantum gravity, based on "quantizing GR", to include explicitly the non-spatiotemporal nature of the fundamental building blocks suggested by several modern quantum gravity approaches (and some semi-classical arguments), and to focus more on the issue of the emergence of continuum spacetime and geometry from their collective dynamics. We also discuss some recent developments in quantum gravity research, aiming at realising these ideas, in the context of group field theory, random tensor models, simplicial quantum gravity, loop quantum gravity, spin foam models.
    Last edited: Mar 11, 2018
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