# Maximum range/endurance of an aeroplane

• jdstokes
In summary, the airplane has a lift and drag force that are inversely proportional to each other. The lift force is what keeps the airplane in the air, while the drag force is what slows the airplane down. The engine must provide a forward force that exactly balances the air resistance force in order for the plane to stay in the air.

#### jdstokes

An airplane in flight is subject to an air resistance force proportional to the square of its speed $v$. But there is an additional resistive force because the airplane has wings. Air flowing over the wings is pushed down and slightly forward, so from Newton's third law the air exerts a force on the wings and airplane that is up and slightly backward. The upward force is the lift force that keeps the airplane aloft, and the backward force is called induced drag. At flying speeds, induced drag is inversely proportional to $v^2$, so that the total air resistance force can be expressed by $F_{air}=\alpha v^2 + \beta/v^2$, where $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are positive constants that depend on the shape and size of the airplane and the density of the air. To simulate a Cessna 150, a small single-engine airplane, use $\alpha$ and $\beta$. In steady flight, the engine must provide a forward force that exactly balances the air resistance force.

Calculate the speed (in km/h) for which the airplane will have the maximum endurance (that is, will remain in the air the longest time).

Since the plane is in steady flight, the thrust of the engines equals the drag force from the air. The power of the engines is thus

$P = F_{air} v$.

I assume that the power is directly proportional to the fuel flow rate, which is inversely proportional to the endurance. Letting the derivative wrt v equal zero gives

$\frac{\mathrm{d}P}{\mathrm{d}v} = 0$
$v = \sqrt[4]{\frac{\beta}{3\alpha}}$.

Which is not correct. What am I doing wrong?

Thanks

James

Try assuming the fuel flow rate is proportional to the thrust instead of to the power.

I tried to minimise the thrust instead of the power to give

$v=\sqrt[4]{\frac{\beta}{\alpha}}$

which is still not correct. Any ideas?

jdstokes said:
I tried to minimise the thrust instead of the power to give

$v=\sqrt[4]{\frac{\beta}{\alpha}}$

which is still not correct. Any ideas?

Power is the the rate of doing work or converting energy. Fuel is stored energy. Assuming constant efficiency, over the duration of the flight the rate of fuel energy consumption is proportional to the power. If the flight lasts a time T, then if E represents useful energy

$E = P(v)T$

$T = \frac{E}{P(v)}$

Maximize the time with respect to velocity, given that E is a constant. That seems like it should give the correct result. But setting

$\frac{\mathrm{d}T}{\mathrm{d}v} = 0$

will lead to the same result as

$\frac{\mathrm{d}P}{\mathrm{d}v} = 0$

I thought it was odd that your first result did not give you the correct answer because it seems you are making the correct assumption relating power to fuel use.

The only other thing I can think of is that what they really mean by endurance is the distance of the flight rather than the time. In that case, you would want to maximize distance instead of T

$d = Tv = \frac{Ev}{P(v)}$

$d = \frac{E}{F(v)}$

which is where the force idea came from.

I do find it odd that there is a force term that is inversely proportinal to velocity squared. As v goes to zero, that force becomes infinite. But the problem does say "at flying speeds" so maybe it is OK.

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## 1. What factors affect the maximum range/endurance of an aeroplane?

The maximum range/endurance of an aeroplane is affected by several factors such as the weight of the aircraft, fuel efficiency, weather conditions, air traffic control, and engine performance.

## 2. How does the weight of an aeroplane affect its maximum range/endurance?

The weight of an aeroplane has a significant impact on its maximum range/endurance. The heavier the aircraft is, the more fuel it will require to maintain flight, which will decrease its range/endurance. On the other hand, a lighter aircraft will require less fuel and can travel farther.

## 3. Can the weather conditions affect the maximum range/endurance of an aeroplane?

Yes, weather conditions can greatly affect the maximum range/endurance of an aeroplane. Strong headwinds can slow down the aircraft and increase fuel consumption, while tailwinds can increase speed and decrease fuel consumption. Adverse weather conditions such as thunderstorms or turbulence can also impact the aircraft's performance and overall range/endurance.

## 4. How does air traffic control impact the maximum range/endurance of an aeroplane?

Air traffic control plays a crucial role in determining the route and altitude of an aircraft. Depending on the route and altitude assigned by air traffic control, an aircraft may experience more or less wind resistance, which can affect its maximum range/endurance. Additionally, air traffic control may also alter the flight plan due to weather or airspace restrictions, which can impact the aircraft's range/endurance.

## 5. Can engine performance affect the maximum range/endurance of an aeroplane?

Engine performance is a critical factor in determining the maximum range/endurance of an aeroplane. The efficiency and power of an engine directly impact the amount of fuel consumed during flight. A well-maintained and high-performance engine can increase the range/endurance of an aeroplane, while a malfunctioning or underperforming engine can decrease it.