Hello all, I'm using peltier modules (also called thermoelectric modules) for a student project. If you're not familiar, they are small semiconductor devices that when heated on one side and cooled on another, power flows due to the Seebeck effect. I'd like to measure power coming from individual modules. Then, when I have many modules wired in series, I'd like to measure total power of the device. In one paper regarding a similar device, the authors compute P = I^2 * R. The authors don't say how they measure current. (Paper: A 500 W low-temperature thermoelectric generator/ Design and experimental study) In another paper, the authors say they measure "open circuit voltages" and "short-circuit" current to derive power. I understand the open circuit voltage part, but I don't know what short circuit current is. (Paper: Ring-structured thermoelectric module). Can I measure voltage only and compute P = V^2 / R? If so, does the internal resistance of my bench meter (HP 34401A multimeter) count as the resistance in my circuit or do I need to add another resistor in series? Why do other researchers prefer other methods? Is the "short circuit" method preferable? If anyone has a reference about measuring power of a device without a load, I would be very grateful. I would like to present my device at conferences and so a reference would be great. Thanks for reading.