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Mitochondrial DNA

  1. Dec 2, 2016 #1
    Dear PF Forum,
    I've seen the term mitochondrial DNA, several years ago usually in determining human migration. Never paid much attention. And recently I read that mitochondria is endosymbiosis, which is surprise me if not intriguing.
    While I thought only chloroplast is endosymbiotic.

    Perhaps anyone can fullfil my curiosity.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrial_DNA#Origin
    1. So, if we extract the usual human DNA (perhaps from nucleus?) from toe and from hair, can we tell it comes from the same person? I think we can, unless for some chimera cases.
    2. If we extract mitochondrial DNA from toe and the usual DNA from hair, can we tell that those two DNA strain come from the same individual?

    and
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrial_DNA#Female_inheritance
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrial_DNA
    3. So can we say that the mitochondrial from a newborn is almost cloned from the mother?

    4. And lastly, can we tell human mitochondrial DNA from another mammals not primate, say tiger?

    Thank you very much.
     
  2. jcsd
  3. Dec 2, 2016 #2

    Ygggdrasil

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    Science Advisor

    Yes.

    Yes, the mitochondrial DNA extracted from two locations on the same individual should be identical. This method, however, cannot uniquely identify the individual as that individuals mother (and maternal grandmother, etc.) will all have nearly identical mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Yes.

    Yes. Humans and diverged from other primate and non-primate species a long enough time ago for their mitochondrial DNA to accumulate enough mutations for them to be distinguishable.
     
  4. Dec 2, 2016 #3
    Wow, thanks @Ygggdrasil for your invaluable help.
    Though, I think I want a clarification of this one question
    Yes, I think mtDNA extracted from two locations on the same individual should be identical, but what I'd like to know actually, can we tell the mtDNA extracted from our toe and the nucleus DNA extracted from our hair come from the same individual?

    Thanks.
     
  5. Dec 2, 2016 #4

    Ygggdrasil

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    Ah, I see. The answer to this is no. There would be no way to predict an individuals mtDNA from their genomic DNA or vice versa.
     
  6. Dec 2, 2016 #5
    Thank you very much. This helps me so much in reading other articles.
     
  7. Dec 4, 2016 #6
    Can I ask again, perhaps off topics?
    So, there are DNAs, deoxyribonucleic acid in mitochondrial aside in cell nucleus.
    Adenine: C5H5N5
    Thymine: C5H5N2O2
    Cytosine: C4H4N3O
    Guanine: C5H4N50
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arecibo_message#Nucleotides
    I learn DNA formula from astronomy.
    So, deoxyribonucleic acid doesn't necesseraly have to be in cell nucleus. It only refers to these pairs of sugar, right? And scientist coined the term DNA, because the first time they found these pairs of sugar was in cell nucleus?
     
  8. Dec 4, 2016 #7

    Ygggdrasil

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    Yes. Many names in biology are purely historical. Deoxyribonucleic acids are not found only in the nucleus. In fact, you will find nucleic acids even in organisms that have no nucleus like bacteria.
     
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