Dear PF Forum, I've seen the term mitochondrial DNA, several years ago usually in determining human migration. Never paid much attention. And recently I read that mitochondria is endosymbiosis, which is surprise me if not intriguing. While I thought only chloroplast is endosymbiotic. Perhaps anyone can fullfil my curiosity. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrial_DNA#Origin 1. So, if we extract the usual human DNA (perhaps from nucleus?) from toe and from hair, can we tell it comes from the same person? I think we can, unless for some chimera cases. 2. If we extract mitochondrial DNA from toe and the usual DNA from hair, can we tell that those two DNA strain come from the same individual? and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrial_DNA#Female_inheritance https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrial_DNA 3. So can we say that the mitochondrial from a newborn is almost cloned from the mother? 4. And lastly, can we tell human mitochondrial DNA from another mammals not primate, say tiger? Thank you very much.