If [itex]p[/itex] is a prime and [itex]a[/itex] an integer coprime with [itex]p[/itex], why is(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});

[itex]a^{\frac{p-1}{2}}\equiv -1 mod p[/itex] ?

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# Modular arithmetic

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