# More candidate cosmic string lens pairs in HUDF

1. Oct 6, 2005

### rmforall

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http://groups.yahoo.com/group/AstroDeep/12
more candidate cosmic string lens pairs in HUDF (re comment by Levon
Pogosian on astro-ph/0506400); also myriad minute bright blue sources,
always on dark background mesh: Murray 2005.08.29

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/AstroDeep/11
subtle background structure in deep astronomy photos; CSL-1 cosmic string
gravitational lens in Capodimonte Deep Field; Millennium Simulation of
evolving cosmic structure; AstroDeep group; Murray mesh; www.Flickr.com[/URL]
photo archive: Murray 2005.06.10

Since Dec 2001, I have been color shifting deep cosmic astronomy photos to
reveal mysterious, fascinating, and unexplained subtle background structure:
appears to be a very distant 3D fractile tangle of dark and light spots,
threads, and lines, behind all galaxies, which I named 'Murray mesh' in
January 2002.

[PLAIN]www.Flickr.com[/URL] allows unlimited numbers of up to 10 MB images to be shared

I have uploaded 17 images from the Capodimonte Deep Field that include CSL-1
and two of the other proposed 11 possible cosmic lens pairs,
then 2 images from the Millenium Simulation that show the cosmic background
of complex filaments,
and then 10 images from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field.

There are many bright blue pairs in the background of HUDF, one of which I
named RML-1, and a universal background of minute bright blue sources,
always on the extremely distant dark mesh -- the highest magnification is
image #21.
Increasing magnifications of this field are provided:

[url]http://photos13.flickr.com/19047521_8b74c0fde7_o.png[/url] #20

[url]http://photos14.flickr.com/19067873_6d8570e64c_o.png[/url] #22

[url]http://photos15.flickr.com/19067874_7251affb8d_o.png[/url] #23

[url]http://photos13.flickr.com/19717874_18d6b931b4_o.png[/url] #24

[url]http://photos14.flickr.com/19726818_0e768be01d_o.png[/url] #25

[url]http://photos14.flickr.com/19054951_53c914b123.jpg[/url] #21 medium size

[url]http://photos14.flickr.com/19054951_53c914b123_o.png[/url] #21 large size

#21 Closeup of possible cosmic string gravitational lens, the blue galaxy
pair, very similar to CSL-1, just above yellow galaxy in lower left corner
of #20 and #22, magenta in #23. I call it RML-1, Rich Murray Lens 1.

The 125 X 125 pixel field was cropped from #23, and expanded to fit the
page, and saved as tif 2.25 MB and this png .087 MB image.

The pixels are .03 arc-second each, so that the original Hubble Ultra Deep
Field, 6200 X 6200 pixels, is 186 X 186 arc-seconds, 3.1 X 3.1 arc-minutes,
a tenth of the diameter of the Full Moon or the Sun, 0.5 degrees,
30 arc-minutes.

This view is 125 X 125 p, 3.75 X 3.75 sec. The length of the dumbbell shape
of the two blue galaxies is 1/9 of the 125 p width of the view, 14 X 7 p,
0.4 X 0.2 sec.

Notice the background scatter of bright blue sources, 1 to 2 pixel size, and
the dark background 3D mesh.

The bright blue sources, like tiny Christmas lights,
are always on the dark 3D mesh.

I surmise that they are very early hypernovae (early quasars),
or possibly the more recent generation of the first dwarf galaxies,
with high formation rates of extremely massive, ultraviolet bright stars.

The putative greater density of cosmic strings should result in a much
greater density of exact mirror image sources in these early epoches.

If you peer closely through a 3.5 inch reading glass with both eyes at these
images on the screen or as a color print, the opposite sides of the wide
lens will act as opposed prisms, separating out the colors enough to create
a very lovely and revealing 3D texture to the image, which can be scanned
thorougly, easily, and quickly to interpret the various levels of
structure --
the colors tend to code for the temperatures and redshifts of the sources.
Moving the wide lens in and out of focus allows convenient
variation of the apparent resolution.

Rich Murray, MA Room For All [email]rmforall@comcast.net[/email] 505-501-2298
1943 Otowi Road Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 USA
[url]http://groups.yahoo.com/group/AstroDeep/[/url]
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astro-ph/0506400--Further spectroscopic observations of the CSL-1 object
Submitted by Referenced Author on Mon, 2005-07-11 10:32. astro-ph

CSL-1 (Capodimonte Sternberg Lens Candidate no 1) first detected at
Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte - Deep Field is an extragalactic
double source with the two images 1.9 arcsec apart. The two sources match
the properties of two giant elliptical galaxies at redshift z=0.46. However,
a detailed analysis in the original paper, Sazhin et al, astro-ph/0302547,
MNRAS (Paper I), provided strong evidence that these two objects are lensed
images of the same galaxy. As shown in Paper I, the spectra of the two
components were nearly identical (at 99.9% confidence level) and there was
no evidence for a relative velocity between the sources. The limited
resolution, however, did not allow the authors to completely rule out the
possibility of a chance alignment of two separate galaxies.

What sets CSL-1 apart from other lensing candidates is the near perfect
symmetry of the two images. These are two well-resolved round bright sources
that look very much like reflections of each other around an axis passing
between them. If it was confirmed that this, in fact, is a lensed object, it
would be very hard to find a known lens that could cause such a perfectly
symmetric image. A lens candidate put forward in Paper I was a cosmic string
and, as far as I know, there have been no alternative candidates. A
discovery of a cosmic string would be a major breakthrough in science with
wide-ranging implications. Before one starts talking about strings however,
it has to be confirmed that CSL-1 is, indeed, two images of the same object
(one should also find an increased number of lensing events in the vicinity
of CSL-1. This may actually be the case, as reported by Sazhin et al in
another paper, astro-ph/0406516).

The aim of this paper is to strengthen the case made in Paper I for CSL-1
being a lensed image. It reports results of observation and analysis of
CSL-1 using a different telescope (ESO Very Large Telescope) and a different
spectrograph. The methods are very much similar to those in Paper I. The
main improvement appears to be the increase in the resolution with which the
two images could be studied. The paper confirms the lensing hypothesis at a
higher than 99.9%'' confidence level.

Within a year, CSL-1 will be observed by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)
with a superb resolution and the authors of this paper are among the
co-recipients of the HST time allocation. If the HST confirms that CSL-1 is
two images of the same object, it will provide an exciting puzzle for us to
solve. And, who knows, we may end up discovering a cosmic string after all!

Levon Pogosian Department of Physics and Astronomy Tufts University Medford,
MA 02155, USA Levon.Pogosian@tufts.edu
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gilster@centauri-dreams.org

http://www.centauri-dreams.org/2005.07.24_arch.html [Broken]
28 jul 05

Tantalizing Evidence for Cosmic Strings
An object called CSL-1 may have a lot to say about the nature of the universe. The odd thing about this double source -- evidently a pair of galaxies -- is that both galaxies appear identical. They share a common redshift, a similar shape, and their luminosity profiles match that of two giant elliptical galaxies. Moreover, the spectra of the two components seem to be identical.

Is this a double image of the same galaxy? If so, then something tantalizing is going on. String theory, the latest and still evolving explanation for how the universe works, says that there should be gigantic counterparts to the strings that make up the fundamental particles of matter. A single-dimensional string millions of light years in length -- think of it as a thread of energy -- is one prediction made by string theory, and CSL-1 may indicate the presence of just such a cosmic string.

For a cosmic string would be so energetic that it would warp spacetime around it, with the effect that a string lying between Earth and a distant object would create two different routes for light to reach us. What we would see would be identical images of the same object, separated by a tiny distance. Mikhail Sazhin (Capodimonte Astronomical Observatory, Naples and the Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow) and his colleagues found CSL-1 last year, and now report on their work in a new paper available on the arXiv site.

The key is to determine whether the two images represent the same object, or whether they are simply two extremely similar galaxies in close proximity to each other. Using the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope (Paranal, Chile), the team recorded detailed spectra of the objects and now present the case that they are identical. Further work will be definitive, and awaits the observing time on the Hubble Space Telescope that the team has now been granted. "The resolution of the HST will allow us to detect the specific signature produced by the cosmic string," says Sazhin, in an article running in the July 30 issue of New Scientist. "We hope it will reduce the scepticism of other astronomers."

Centauri Dreams' note: the first alternative that leaped to mind here was conventional gravitational lensing; i.e., lensing caused by a massive object between Earth and the distant galaxy. But Sazhin notes that standard lensing models rule out this configuration. "...in this second case, due to the lack of asymmetry in the two images, the lens could not be modelled with the standard lensing by a massive compact source. Actually, the usual gravitational lenses, i.e. those formed by bound clumps of matter, always produce inhomogeneous gravitational fields which distort the images of extended background sources... The detailed modelling of CSL-1 proved that the two images were virtually undistorted."

Only gravitational lensing produced by a cosmic string seems to fit the data. The Hubble work will be vital because the cosmic string model predicts the images should have sharp edges of a precision not verifiable from Earth-based telescopes. The observations for these tests have not yet been taken, and so the coincidental two-galaxy possibility cannot yet be ruled out.

If the CSL-1 data are confirmed as the result of a cosmic string, this finding would suggest that string theory is correct in its prediction of extra dimensions in the universe. Indeed, the theory makes the startling claim that the universe may be a three-dimensional 'brane' afloat in a sea of other dimensions. A collision between two such branes could have caused the Big Bang, and produced at the same time the kind of cosmic strings hypothesized here.

Image: A computer simulation of cosmic strings run at the University of Southampton (UK). Formed in a tangled mass, the strings would have quickly started to straighten out at speeds close to that of light, under the influence of their enormous tension. Remnants would still be around today: perhaps a few lengths stretching across the the visible Universe, strings so large that they have not had time to disappear, and a debris of smaller oscillating loops. The Southampton work on massively parallel simulations of cosmic strings can be found online.

The paper on CSL-1 is Sazhin, M., Capaccioli, M, Longo, G. et al., "Further spectroscopic observations of the CSL-1 object," available here.
Thu, July 28, 2005 | link
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