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- Thread starter forceface
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fzero

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$$ A = c_1 \frac{1}{p^2 - M^2 + i M\Gamma} c_2.$$

Here ##M## is the mass of the resonance ##X## and ##\Gamma## is its decay rate. The factor in the middle is the propagator for ##X## at 4-momentum ##p##. The factor ##c_2## describes the details of the interaction between ##X## and the ##e^+e^-## pair, while ##c_1## describes the interaction of ##X## with a specific collection of particles in the end state. The inclusive cross section would involve summing over all possible final states.

The cross-section depends on the modulus square of the amplitude and we can imagine expanding the result in terms of the ratio of the spatial components of the ##X## momentum with respect to the energy of the particle. For center-of-mass energy ##E## close to the mass of the resonance, most of the energy must go into producing the particle, so ##E\sim M## and the spatial momenta must be very small. If we neglect these corrections, we can write the corresponding probability in the form

$$ P \sim \frac{k}{(E^2 -M^2)^2 + (M\Gamma)^2},$$

which is known as the Breit-Wigner distribution. We use the variable ##k## to contain all of the precise details of the interactions involved in a specific process. You can verify that this function has the form of a curve with peak centered at ##E=M##. The width of the peak is related to the decay rate: the larger the decay rate, the broader the peak. Conversely, the smaller the decay rate (or more stable the particle is), the narrower the peak is.

We conclude from this that, whatever the detailed form of the cross-section for ##e^+e^- \rightarrow \mathrm{anything}##, we should find peaks around the masses of any resonances that are permitted to be produced at the given energy. At any given energy, there is a background corresponding to the events where we produce resonances with particles much lower than the c.o.m. energy, but whenever there is a stable enough resonance, there will be a well-defined peak in the spectrum that sticks out of the background.

To be totally convincing, one would have to do the hard work of actually computing the details of the amplitudes involved, or better yet, actually make the measurements and verify that the resonance peaks do in fact stand out from the background events. The Breit-Wigner distribution is an approximate description that actually turns out to be very useful to discuss certain properties of the observations.

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So in other words this is the J/Psi particle.

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mfb

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That was the first observed resonance involving charm quarks, right.

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