Hi, I didn't know if this is a homework question it didn't fit any of the template layout. If it is let me know and I'll post it there but I have some question that have become very frustrating and more frustrating in finding answers to them. If you are able to answer this question you just helped a student out and I thank you. The question is "At the negative terminal of a battery does the electrons of the net negative charge atom flow through the copper wires to the cathode end or is it only the copper atoms valence electrons that flow to the positive terminal of the battery or does both happen? and the electrons in the battery only fill in the copper atom holes?" Another one that puzzles me is does the net negative charge battery atoms ever strike the copper atoms valence electrons? And if so is that what causes heat? or is heat produced when the copper atoms strike each other when they randomly zigzag to the positive end of the terminal? What happens to the electrons that is received at the positive end of the battery does the electrolytes transfer the electrons to the negative terminal so that it can repeat the flow again? Last one when the copper atoms loose electrons because it's attracted to the positively charged terminal. That copper atom becomes a cation how does current flow if that atom has a net positive charge? Once again i really appreciate any input that you give me as it has perplexed me for sometime.