Tiger, what do you mean specifically when you say 'highly ionized atomic nuclei'?
misskitty said:Tiger, what do you mean specifically when you say 'highly ionized atomic nuclei'?
it cannot approach absolute 0 even after radiating all the energy
it has to loose energy and the eventually it will have nothing left. what will happen then?
The elements in a star form by the fusion process, which is not exactly random. Hydrogen rich stars opperate on the PP cycle, and others which generate or form from clouds which contain C, N and O, can work on the CNO cycle. Some stars can burn He, and fuse heavier elements, which require higher temperatures.misskitty said:Tiger, so there are just random elements flying around the stars? Are there any elements that seem to be in every star and others that never appear?
I would imagine it's just gamma radiation - there are no atoms in the core of a neutron star. Highly ionized atoms would produce mostly (if not completely) X-rays.SpaceTiger said:As for emission lines, you usually don't get those in stars unless there is a significant extended region of hot gas beyond the star's photosphere. Stars with heavy stellar winds or interacting binaries will sometimes have emission lines, but most of the time, the spectrum is thermal+absorption. Isolated neutron stars that we can see are usually very hot, so the gas is too heavily ionized even for absorption lines (at least in the optical and UV).
Neutronium is a colloquial and often misused term for an extremely dense phase of matter that occurs under the intense pressure found in the core of neutron stars and is currently not well understood. It is not an accepted term in astrophysics literature for reasons which will be explained below, but is used with some regularity in science fiction . . . .
Astronuc said:I would imagine it's just gamma radiation - there are no atoms in the core of a neutron star.
Highly ionized atoms would produce mostly (if not completely) X-rays.
SpaceTiger said:We don't see the core of the neutron star, we see the surface. On the surface, there are indeed highly ionized atoms and degeneracy is negligible
I was thinking that there has to be a lot of Compton scattering of gamma radiation, hence there would be a fair amount of X-rays. It is true that 100 eV would be in ultraviolet. I suppose there is a distribution of temperature depending on distance from the region of degenerate matter.SpaceTiger said:Not really, the energy of the radiation that comes out depends largely on the temperature. In the case of a neutron star, all but the very youngest have temperatures <106 K, corresponding to a blackbody peak at <100 eV. Some neutron stars do emit a lot in the X-rays, but there are many cases of highly-ionized media (like HII regions) in which the majority of the radiation is in the optical or UV.
Dpes this not imply energies (temperatures) > 100 eV?Space Tiger said:Atoms with most or all of their electrons stripped and roaming free.