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NON-PERFECTION HYPOTHESIS

Its postulates are:

1. The space is the set of the points of existence

2. The matter is displaced with the speed of light

3. The gravity is the sucking of space by the substance

An important consequence:

The relativity of time depends only on the distance covered by the body with respect to the observer. For bigger velocities, the difference of time becomes more apparent.

Point of existence-the basic space unit, it is not divisible, from this point springs the dimension. The manner of the combination of these points creates the dimension. Thus a point is dimensionless. The substance exists only in those points.

Existence time- the time the substance stays in the point of existence, measured by an observer who rests during all time with regard to space, or the time measured by the substance itself.

Absolute time-the time during which the substance does not exist, it has been transformed into energy, or it occurs in the energetic space. This time interval again is measured by an observer, at rest with regard to space. This time interval cannot be measured by the substance itself, for the substance doesn’t exist in this time interval.

The energetic space-the space of non-existence- an imaginary space containing our space, and the substance in the absolute time is found in this space. We cannot talk much on this space of non-existence, for the substance doesn’t exist in it.

The basic distance- an imaginary distance uniting two consecutive points of existence. In fact , between two consecutive points of existence there is no distance, for there is no space in between them, but the passage of the substance from one point to another one is done in a time interval, and that creates the imaginary distance (the ends of which coincide with the two consecutive points of existence) such as to imagine the substance passing with a velocity c from one point of existence to its neighbor. Thus, the absolute time causes the passage in time of the body from one point of existence to its neighbor. If the body would move without time, the imaginary distance would not exist.

The basic substance-it is the basic unit of substance. Perhaps undiscovered until today. Perhaps such are the quarks. Perhaps it is a component part of the quarks.

1. The space is the set of the points of existence.

That means that the space is made of some points called points of existence. Those points are the basic unit of space. Those points do not occur in space as it is our first impression, but those points make up the space itself. Those points carry the substance. Those points can be found in two forms: with the substance, and without the substance, ready to carry it. According to the concept of the men for the space, between two whatever points of space exists an infinity of other such points. But this is not true for the space. Between two whatever points of existence, there is a finite number of other points of existence. Between two such consecutive points there is no space, for there are no points of existence in between. And the word itself “in the middle” is a term used only in space. Out of space it cannot be used.

To each two points of existence corresponds a distance. That distance does not truly exist, but is an imaginary one because it does not extend in space. But man has a conception for the distance, and according to this concept, there is no indivisible distance. Thus, if we divide a normal visible distance with number n-1 of the points of existence where length is born we would find this imaginary distance which corresponds to two consecutive points of existence. This distance we will call basic distance and will denote it by xb. This distance is absolute for each couple of consecutive points of existence.

The substance passes in those points, “disappearing”, and after an absolute time Ta, “being created” in the consecutive point. This contradicts classical physics, in which it is claimed nothing disappears, things only are transformed. And in the non-perfection hypothesis the substance does not indefinitely disappear, but after an absolute time interval it is newly materialized. Never happens it disappears and is not newly recreated. Thus there is no substance loss. This time is absolute for each couple of consecutive points of existence. We can say that the substance is changed into energy in the absolute time, with the condition energy does not exist in space. So the energy serves as an intermediary of substance or mass between two points of existence. In addition to the absolute time, there also exists the time of existence te, the time the substance stays in the points of existence. The substance that exists in one point of existence is called the basic substance.

We have to point out that an observer, at rest during all time with respect to space, thus being at the points of existence, is always existent. So it is always in the time of existence te. If a body moves, the observer measures for the body its time of existence and also its absolute time. While the moving body measures only its proper time of existence for it exists only during this time, being in space.

To better imagine the points of existence, let us suppose they are spheres in space. Those spheres are placed in equal distances between them. The substance can be found only in those spheres. It moves from one sphere to the other one in the form of energy.

The second postulate of the non-perfection hypothesis is:

2. The matter is displaced with the speed of light.

That means Xb/Ta=c

Thus the basic distance divided by the absolute time is equal to the speed of light. This is the speed in between a couple of consecutive points. Meanwhile the speed in the uniform movement between two points whatever, measured by the observer at rest with respect to space, is:

where X is the whole distance covered by the body, Te the sum of the times of existence and Ta the sum of the absolute times. This speed is observed by an observer at rest with respect to the space, so it is existent during all the time T. The observer measures for the body moving with the speed V the absolute time and that of existence. Meantime, the body itself measures only the time of existence, not the absolute time. For it does not exist in the absolute time. From its point of view the time of existence flows continually, with no interruption. Now we shall do some transforms, to show the ratio of the time measured by the observer with that measured by the moving body itself.

Then or

where V’ is the proper speed. That is, the speed of the moving body, measured by the same.

X=nxb and Ta = nta where n is the number of the absolute times and of the basic distances because as many basic distances are covered by the body, so many basic times are past. Thus, n is simplified and from the second postulate we derive ta/xb=1/c, because xb/ta = c.

We have , where T is the time measured by the observer, .

From the formula we derive

Dividing Te by T

So, , where Te is the time measured by the body itself, that is, the proper time. While T is the time measured by the observer at rest. Therefore for the observer, the bigger the V value, the bigger the time extension. This is obvious from the formula and it is explained by the fact that the observer measures also the absolute time in addition to the proper time measured by the moving body. We observe the similarity of this formula with that of Einstein’s relativity for the relative time. If we replace Te by Δt’, and T by Δt , the formula would take the form . Einstein’s formula is . We observe the similarity. If we would perform Einstein’s experiment horizontally, we would have obtained the formulas , or . We shall take a carriage moving at a speed V with regard to the ground, on its left there is a source of light and on its right there is a detector which records the moment the light comes to the right end of the carriage. The light moves in the direction the carriage moves. The length of the carriage is X. To the observer at rest with the ground, the light covers the distance for during the time the light reaches the right end, the carriage has been displaced by VΔt. For the observer stationed inside the carriage the light covers the distance X. The light has the same speed c in both frames of reference. We represent this by the formulas:

for the observer at rest with the ground.

for the observer inside the carriage.

We express X using both the above formulas. and . And:

. Dividing both sides by c: . We come to the same result of the formula of the non-perfection hypothesis. That is another proof for the non-perfection hypothesis. So we showed why the time extension occurs according to the non-perfection hypothesis.

From formulas and it follows that for V = c the time of existence is equal to 0. That is the reason the photon has no rest mass. For it has no time of existence. We see V cannot surpass c because the time of existence would be negative, and a negative time has no sense.

Now we see where are the limits of the proper speed V’. From we express V’.

. We see that the proper speed for V = c is infinity. This is also shown by the formula , where if for V equal to c the time of existence is 0, from this it follows V’ goes to infinity. If a body moves with a speed approaching c, then it is very poorly materialized, that is, it is found much less in the time of existence than in the absolute time. Consequently, the proper speed measured by the body in movement surpasses c.

Another form of V is also because , for we have stated that the body moves with the speed of light. Dividing the above expression by Ta, we have . By this time, it is obvious that the speed depends only on the ratio of time of existence with absolute time. We note that for Te = 0 this speed is equal to c.

Summarizing we have those important formulae:

te- time of existence, ta-absolute time, Te-the sum of te, Ta-the sum of ta, xb- the basic distance, X- the distance covered by the body, V- the speed of the body with regard to the observer at rest with the space, V’- the proper speed of the body

Why are we not aware of the absolute time in everyday life?

Let us take a simple example. If a body covers a distance of X = 300 km, . So we see that for a distance of 300 km the absolute time, or the time of annihilation-creation, or the time during which the body doesn’t exist, is very small. If the body moves by a speed V = 300 km per hour, then he covers that distance in an hour, or in 3600 sec. In those 3600 sec, only 10-3 sec pertain to absolute time, and the rest (3600-10-3) sec pertain to the time of existence.

The proof beyond any doubt of the non-perfection hypothesis is the following:

Three atomic clocks are taken, which can measure with a very high precision the time, e.g. Cesium clocks. All the three clocks are placed in the same position and are synchronized, so they tell the same time. After the synchronization, one of them travels to and fro with a definite speed. The other clock does the same road, but with a different speed from the first. If both the clocks that traveled show the same difference in the registration of time with the third clock at rest, then this means:

Absolute time or the difference time between the observer and the moving body depends only on distance.

The relative contraction is true, beyond doubt. We shall explain this later, when we will show that the speed of light is absolute.

What will be the expression for the impulse in the non-perfection theory? The impulse characterizes the moving body. The change of the body speed leads to a change of the time of existence. That is, the impulse is related only to the time of existence. p= mV’, because V’ is the proper speed. Taking into account the formula relating V’ with V, which is , we have: . We see that for V = c the impulse goes to infinity.

From this expression for the impulse we obtain the expression for kinetic energy for the moving body. The method is simple, and we get as a result: . So we get a result similar to the result obtained by Einstein. We see that for V = 0 the rest energy is

E = mc2. Another interpretation of this formula is that when the mass moves with the speed of light it is transformed into energy. This is explained that when the body moves with the speed of light it doesn’t exist and is found only in the absolute time, which is pure energy.

Now we deal with the photon.

Why the photon has an absolute speed for all the systems of reference according to Einstein?

Why the movement of the Earth with regard to the space was not noted in the Michelson- Morley experiment?

Why the photon, not being in existence, that is, having not a mass, deviates by the action of a gravitational field?

To both the last questions we will answer when we will treat in detail the true nature of the gravity.

Now let us prove why the speed of light is absolute.

The light, in contrast to the other substances, does not materialize. That peculiarity makes its speed absolute in every system of reference. An observer with a certain speed V stays in existence for a certain time. During this time that he is at rest with regard to the ground, that is, in his time of existence, he observes the light as having the speed c, for he is at rest with regard to the space. He observes just the same way as an observer that stays at rest all the time. Now let us take the case when the body moves in the same direction with the light. The observer moves with a speed V. So he is displaced. This displacement is done with the speed c, that is, in absolute time. We said that the observer doesn’t measure the proper absolute time. He measures only his time of existence. In the instant he passes in the absolute time, the light also passes in the absolute time, for light is always in the absolute time. So, for the observer, even in the instant he finishes his absolute time the photon remains at the same distance. We repeat, “imaginary distance”. That is because photon does not materialize, but if we introduce the concept of the space of non-existence, the distance photon-observer does not change during the absolute time, because they move with the same speed. After being in the absolute time, the observer passes in the time of existence and again he observes the light with the speed c. The observer observes only the time of existence. So he measures always the speed of light c, because during absolute time the light does not change coordinates. This is a little abstract, because light cannot be observed during its flight, for it has not time of existence.

(these part is explain with graphics but I couldn't add them here)

Why in the Michelson-Morley experiment, the speed of the Earth with respect to the space was not detected?

There exist some hypotheses that explain why the diffraction pattern didn’t appear in Michelson’s device. The first is that we do not yet know how the Earth moves with respect to space. Perhaps the space where the Earth exists is uniformly moving with regard to the space that folds up the Sun. Because we cannot be so sure that the space is homogenous. The second, if we apply the non-perfection theory for Miochelson’s device we note that the distance the light covers is the same and the diffraction is not observed.

Einstein stated the gravity force has a pure geometrical character. In this respect he introduced the notion of the curved space-time. Why the bodies do differently behave in the presence of gravitational field? Why the light that has no rest mass deviates because of the gravity field? How can this be explained in the non-perfection theory? Einstein stated that the gravitational mass is equivalent to inertial mass. He stated that the proper time in the presence of the field of gravity is of a local character.

The non-perfection hypothesis states that the gravitational and inertial masses are the same thing.

The gravity is no more than suction of the space by the matter

This explains the fact the speed of gravitational action is infinite.

Thus in fact the bodies are placed in a constant height under the action of gravity, but perform standard movements with regard to the space. When the body freely falls, it is at rest with regard to space. This concept is difficult to imagine. For we don’t know where goes the absorbed space from the big mass. This experiment can be compared with a hole in the water in a jar. The water moves towards the hole and later it falls down. When it falls down, he is no longer in the surface of the jar. Thus he changes dimension, if I can put it that way, from the viewpoint of the surface of the jar. Thus goes with the gravity. The space comes toward the earth with a definite speed, varying from zero up to a certain value, depending on the mass of the body creating the gravity. In a certain manner, as in the example of the water hole, the space is destructed or disappears from our world. That is the reason of the deviation of light by the action of gravity, because the space moves in the direction of the body that creates the gravity. Einstein stated that the mass uses the space to displace itself, and dictates to the space how it will bend. He could not accept the space moves, because the Michelson-Morley experiment was discarded. But the suction of space by the mass explains why the body reacts differently in the presence of gravity. This explains the fact that nearer to the ground, smaller the proper time of the body compared to the time of the observer at rest with the space, because nearer to the ground, bigger is its speed in space. That is the reason man in a free-falling lift with an acceleration g is free from forces, for he performs a standard movement with regard to space. The black holes only suck the space swifter than the speed of light, so the light cannot abandon such bodies. There you are, the mass can destruct space! How can we understand this? If the substance stationed in a point of existence destructs the points of existence surrounding it, then the point of existence in which the substance resides makes a “reconnection” with the following points of existence. This we can illustrate by an example. If we have some bricks placed one upon the other, and we remove the one that is on the ground, then all bricks will be displaced downwards. Why arises the acceleration? The space that is gone is recreated in some distant from the Earth definite rays, and this creates the accelerating effect. For the points of existence that are distant from the Earth, the displacement toward the Earth is smaller than for those that are nearer. This happens because between the points of existence and the ground other points of existence come in-between, those previously eliminated. The further from the ground the point of existence, more other points will come. The nearer, less will. Thus the space moves with regard to the ground faster when near than when far-off. Out of this, a new hypothesis is born: Perhaps Hubble’s law is not true. Hubble, on the grounds of the red- shift effect, stated that the galaxies move away from the Earth. The red-shift effect is explained by the fact that between wave crests in the presence of gravitational field, enters space. This means that the wavelength increases, that is , tends towards the red color. Therefore, perhaps space is not extending.

Adriatik Nikaj

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# Non-perfection Hypothesis

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