"nuclear" fission produces quark mass A top quark is roughly 32 times more massive than a bottom quark. A charm quark is roughly 8 times more massive than a strange quark. And a down quark is roughly 2 times more massive than an up quark. In nuclear fission 2 neutrons yield 4 neutrons which become 8 neutrons then 16 then 32 etc. So how are quark masses produced? If an up quark is made from two smaller particles and separating those particles creates other quarks (quark confinement analogy)successively heavier quarks will be created if the force holding the two particles of the up quark together gets stronger with increasing separation. Suppose that the space between the two particles of the up quark is occupied by groups of unstable particles of another kind ( analagous to unstable atomic nuclei), and one of the particles that constitute the up quark emits the equivalent of a neutron.An exponential cascade will be set in motion yielding more and more force carriers as distance increases.This is why the force between the two particles of the up quark gets stronger with increasing distance. But why are the numbers 4 and 16 missing from the cascade - why are no quarks produced at the distances corresponding to these numbers.ANSWER: quarks are made - and they go by the name of Dark Energy! There are thus 4 quark families ( a missing lepton too presumably).