How are the orbital frequencies of single atomic electrons, and covalent electrons determined?
The model of an electron "orbiting" around the nucleus of an atom is fundamentally incorrect. Thus, the electron doesn't really have an "orbital frequency" as a planet orbiting the sun would. Check out this entry by ZapperZ in the Physics FAQ:
Electrons don't move around and they just appear to be 'smeared' into the shape of a sphere around the nucleus?
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