How to 'produce' martensite and bainite? For what i know, martensite formed by rapid cooling from austenite phase of steel, and slow cooling to form back to it's original state. But in order to form bainite, what's the cooling rate? intermediate between rapid and slow cooling? How rapid and how slow is it exactly? I heated up furnace temp to 760 degree Celsius (1400 F), and put in Fe-0.45C for nearly 20 mins(what phase is this Fe-0.45C falls after i quench it for 20 seconds, with water as quenching media?), but the hardness readings were not equal over the whole test piece. Is it because of the quenching media, which never equally cool for the test piece, or it is due to the quenching time?