B Phases of matter (1 Viewer)

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I read a physics book, it says here that...
" Matter appears in three different phases that we call solid, liquid, and gas"

How about plasma?
 

DrClaude

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It is generally recognised that there are 4 states of matter, including plasma.
 

Vanadium 50

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There are many things that could be called phases of matter. How many there are tells you at least as much about the person doing the counting as the thing being counted.
 

sophiecentaur

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There are many things that could be called phases of matter. How many there are tells you at least as much about the person doing the counting as the thing being counted.
I wouldn't say that was in any way the worst example of classification for classification's sake. (Classifying series and parallel circuits is one the worst.) State diagrams are serious attempts to represent the way that substances behave. Not all substances are classifiable simply but at least no one seems to want to try it with Non-Newtonian Fluids and Engine Coolant mixtures.
 
If you search for "5th state of matter" you get quite a few pages on Bose-Einstein Condensates, I'm not sure how official that is. Also glass is an amorphous solid, a somewhere in between state. Other states mentioned are Gluon Plasm states

Cheers
 

sophiecentaur

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If you search for "5th state of matter" you get quite a few pages on Bose-Einstein Condensates, I'm not sure how official that is. Also glass is an amorphous solid, a somewhere in between state. Other states mentioned are Gluon Plasm states

Cheers
You don't need to go to Modern Science to find things that are not classifiable with the conventional system. It's just that I think the system was chosen deliberately to avoid outliers and its limitations are its strength.
 
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As allready said by posters the fourth state of matter is plasma. Just an additional thought. It seems that there is no absolute aggregate state of matter thus matter always exists at least in two "phases" or states. From what i read on empirical physics ice for example always exists in solid and liquid state. Liquid state at the boundary or edge of ice wall.
 

DrClaude

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It seems that there is no absolute aggregate state of matter thus matter always exists at least in two "phases" or states. From what i read on empirical physics ice for example always exists in solid and liquid state. Liquid state at the boundary or edge of ice wall.
Really? A piece of copper at room temperature would have some liquid component?
 

ZapperZ

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As allready said by posters the fourth state of matter is plasma. Just an additional thought. It seems that there is no absolute aggregate state of matter thus matter always exists at least in two "phases" or states. From what i read on empirical physics ice for example always exists in solid and liquid state. Liquid state at the boundary or edge of ice wall.
This is wrong in several different factors. First, look at the phase diagram for ice-water-steam. You can see that there are clearly conditions in which it is just ice, just water, and just steam. So already what you said is wrong.

The second part that is wrong is that look at the triple point of water. What do you think is going on there, and how many phases are in equilibrium at that point?

Zz.
 
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Well i will have to find a reference for this because it was experimentally verified that ice has a tiny nano or even less sized liquid wall. And yes copper should also have a tiny pico sized liquid wall. I know this is considered pseudo science but hutchinson effect experiments he succedeed in liquifying iron at room temprature of course under some kind of extreme non temperature related conditions related to strong electromagnetic fields and pressure.
 

ZapperZ

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Well i will have to find a reference for this because it was experimentally verified that ice has a tiny nano or even less sized liquid wall. And yes copper should also have a tiny pico sized liquid wall. I know this is considered pseudo science but hutchinson effect experiments he succedeed in liquifying iron at room temprature of course under some kind of extreme non temperature related conditions related to strong electromagnetic fields and pressure.
And you think this is on topic with what the OP asked and at the level implied by the question?

Zz.
 
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What about neutron degenerate matter,or neutron star matter? It’s the seventh state of matter.
 
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I deviated from topic so i apologize for that. I am obviously not updated since someone here mentions seventh state of matter which is beyond what i know.
 

Lord Jestocost

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From what i read on empirical physics ice for example always exists in solid and liquid state. Liquid state at the boundary or edge of ice wall.
What you are probably addressing is the liquid-like surface layer of ice below the melting point which, however, isn’t liquid water but a “quasi-liquid” surface phase.

“Near the melting point ice, and other solids, show a behavior of a liquid-like surface layer. This layer can be explained by the fact that molecules near the surface are not as tightly integrated into the crystal structure of ice. Instead, they are in a disordered state that is somewhat more like a liquid. The thickness of this layer can be as small as a few atoms, and it disappears entirely at temperatures below about -40 C, although estimates vary greatly.”

From Martin Truffer's "Ice Physics"
ice physics - Glaciers Group - University of Alaska
 

ZapperZ

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Let me stress that these "phases of matter" is a loose categorization of a statistical first-order phase transition. It is not, I repeat, NOT a description of the boundary between different states, i.e. the surface properties of matter. This is a completely different can of worms, because surface states and properties can vary wildly and have tons of exotic properties (topological insulator, anyone?).

So to bring up properties that are relevant to what is going on at the surface is not only off-topic, but also opening up wildly different and varying physics that have nothing to do with "phases of matter".

Zz.
 

Vanadium 50

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And, indeed, the surface composition of solids is almost never identical to the bulk material.
 

sophiecentaur

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Let me stress that these "phases of matter" is a loose categorization of a statistical first-order phase transition.
Yes, I like that way of putting it; it discourages a slavish obsession with categorising absolutely everything, rather than looking for understanding.
 

Lord Jestocost

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....i.e. the surface properties of matter. This is a completely different can of worms, because surface states and properties can vary wildly and.....
And that might be the reason for the following quotation which seems to be from Wolfgang Pauli: “God made the bulk; surfaces were invented by the devil.
 
There are 5 conditions of issue

Strong - have distinct shape and volume both and have less bury atomic space

Fluid - Don't have distinct shape however have positive volume and have extensive intermolecular space

Gas - no unequivocal shape and volume and have extensive intermolecular space

BEC( Bose-Einstein condensate) - it is a condition of matter of a weaken gas of bosons (a sort of molecule ) cooled to temperatures near outright zero(- 273°C) . under such conditions, a substantial division of bosons involve the least quantum state , so, all in all minute quantum wonders, especially wave work obstruction end up clear

Plasma state - plasma is a hot ionized gas comprising of an around equivalent number of emphatically charged particle and contrarily charged electrons. the qualities of plasmas are altogether unique in relation to those of standard impartial gases with the goal that plasma is considered an unmistakable " fourth condition of the issue "
 
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Slightly off-topic : The 'Hutchinson Effect' has the unfortunate symptom of being irreproducible.
Either the guy's gone waaay beyond the 'Standard Model' and encountered some clumpy 'Dark Matter', or his work is up there with Martian 'Canals' and N-Rays.
Hopefully, he is merely mistaken, self-delusional, rather than out-right dishonest.
( Although he has admitted to 'improving' a demo when it stopped working... )
 

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