1] Is the placenta and cord an extension of the fetus or of the host? We were talking about this, and have tentatively concluded that the DNA of placenta and cord would reflect the fetus rather than the host. This came up in a discussion about 'two vessel cord'. I was wondering if that would be an anomaly of the mother's or of the baby's genes. 2] How do animals deal with the separation of the cord from the fetus? I know the mother will break the cxord and consume the products of labour, but that doesn't directly cauterize or clot the baby. In (modern) humans we must cauterize the cord or it will bleed out, since newborns do not have a clotting factor. Do animals have a more "proactive" clotting rate?