# Planetary Magnetic Feild Inversion

OK, I realize this may be more geophysics then "geology", but I beg for leniency. I have recently been exchanging e-mails with Dr. Daniel Lathrop of the University of Maryland. He is currently involved in a project attempting to model the Earth's magnetic field and, in particular, polar inversions of that field. I have long held a suspicion that once the Earth's magnetic field has destabilized beyond a certain critical threshold (when it is ready to flip), it is solar max that triggers that flip. His response made it clear that I did not adequately communicate the idea. I will soon be writing a follow up e-mail in an attempt to clarify, but in the meanwhile I had hopes that we might discuss the idea here.

For starters, have I grossly over estimated the force of the Suns magnetic field at this distance?

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Staff Emeritus
Gold Member
Originally posted by LURCH
OK, I realize this may be more geophysics then "geology", but I beg for leniency. I have recently been exchanging e-mails with Dr. Daniel Lathrop of the University of Maryland. He is currently involved in a project attempting to model the Earth's magnetic field and, in particular, [polar] inversions of that field. I have long held a suspicion that once the Earth's magnetic field has destabilized beyond a certain critical threshold (when it is ready to flip), it is solar max that triggers that flip. His response made it clear that I did not adequately communicate the idea. I will soon be writing a follow up e-mail in an attempt to clarify, but in the meanwhile I had hopes that we might discuss the idea here.

For starters, have I grossly over estimated the force of the Suns magnetic field at this distance? If I have, this idea would be comparable to conjecture is as to the effect of lunar gravity on the water and human body. If this is the case, then I may have exceeded the structural integrity tolerances of my cookware.

I didn't think that the source of the Earth's field was well understood. What do you think is the exact mechanism for this influence?

Doesn't magnetism work by the inverse-square law? If so, it would be easy to overestimate the effects of solar radiation, on account of the vast distance, and the tendency of radiation to dissipate rather quickly over distance.

Then again, I am the General board mentor..I may in fact have no idea what I am talking about.

Staff Emeritus
Gold Member
Originally posted by Zero
Doesn't magnetism work by the inverse-square law? If so, it would be easy to overestimate the effects of solar radiation, on account of the vast distance, and the tendency of radiation to dissipate rather quickly over distance. Then again, I am the General board mentor..I may in fact have no idea what I am talking about.

I think the local influence of the sun's field compared as to the Earth's is about 1%. I can probably find this if no one knows for sure. This is mentioned in the context of tracking historic solar intensity - which it seems goes as the solar magnetic field strength - in the residual magnetic fields frozen in rocks.

Originally posted by Ivan Seeking
I didn't think that the source of the Earth's field was well understood. What do you think is the exact mechanism for this influence?

That's true, we don't understand it very well. That is Dr Lathrop's project; to model the field and find out how it's generated. He is currently working on models that assume a dynamo effect for the cause, partly because dynamoes are known to reverse polarity periodically.

His first models generated no magnetic field at all. So the other question I e-mailed to him was whether radiative decay was taken into account in the computer models. But I didn't state the thought clearly, and he responded that they didn't use radioactive materials in the laboratory model because of the strict regulations for handling such materials. The misscomunication was unfortunate, but it was encouraging to hear that they're being carefull!

zoobyshoe
Lurch,

I don't know what the "solar max"
is and would be interested in
finding out.

As for the Earth's magnetic field,
(you probably recall my question
about the magnetic field of stars
about the Thompson Effect and this
struck me as a suspect that ought
to be brought in for questioning.
The Thompson Effect relies on the
voltage that is created whenever
there is a temperature different-
ial in a piece of metal.

To the extent there is a tempera-
ture differential between the
hot molten core of the Earth and
the cooler outer skin, there
ought to be a voltage whereever
concuction of electricity can
occur.

I have no idea how much iron there
may be down there or if it would
be evenly distributed enough
around the interior, but it seems
to me this would be a good place
to look for the exiting voltage
of his self-exiting dynamo.

thought of this.
Excuse me also for babling on
about it when I have no idea how
it may contribute to the flip of
the Earth's magnetic field.

-zooby

Hey Zooby-"zoot zoot!"

Some good thoughts there. Also brought to my attention that I've not provided any introduction to Dr Lathrop's work. He's got a http://complex.umd.edu/dynamo/index.html [Broken] for anyone who'd like to follow along as I have been. His models, as you'll see, are mostly liquid sodium, but that should not make much difference in the answer to your queries. I don't see any detailed account of wether the Thompson Effect has been considered. I'll ask him in my next e-mail. I think I'll also ask him to join us here at the Forums, so he doesn't have to keep getting e-mails from total strangers (that's got to be kinda creepy).

As for Solar Max; it is the period of maximum Solar activity leading up to and during the inversion of the Sun's magnetic field , which occurs once every elleven years.

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zoobyshoe
Lurch,

For clarity's sake I want to say
by a temperature gradient in a
conductor is not, itself, called
the Thompson Effect. There doesn't
seem to be a name for this effect.

is a contributing factor to the
Thompson Effect.

The Thompson Effect is part of a
closely related trio of thermo-
electric effects: The Seebeck
Effect, The Peltier Effect, and
The Thompson Effect.

The unnamed sub effect of the
Thompson Effect is described in my
encyclopedia like this:

duces an electric field can be ex-
plained as follows. Heating up one
end of the metal bar increases
the thermal velocities of the ele-
ctrons at that end. Consequently,
they migrate toward the cooler end, creating an electric imbal-
ance and therefore an electric field."

-zoob

P.S. Thanks for explaining the
solar max. You are saying the
sun's magnetic field flips every
11 years? That's intense.

I will check Dr. Lathrop's site.
Liquid sodium? Hot stuff.

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dhris
Sorry if I'm reviving an old thread, but I just found this one from a link left by Lurch in the other forum. I am interested to know, Lurch, how you think the solar max would trigger a reversal? I'm not saying I think it's wrong, I'm just wondering what you think the mechanism would be for that?

In the last couple of years, there have been numerical simulations of the Earth's core (simulations of the coupled Navier-Stokes and induction equations) in which stable magnetic fields have been maintained by turbulent fluid flow. They have even observed some reversals without considering any outside influences. Reversals are actually a generic feature of chaotic generation of magnetic field, since the equations are invariant under reversal of the field polarity. Of course, no numerical model is even close to simulating the actual Earth since putting Earth-like parameters into the code leads to some serious numerical problems.

dhris

dhris
And as for Dr Lathrop's experiments, something like what he is proposing really should work if the leading theory (what I consider to be the leading theory anyway) of the Earth's field generation is correct. The problem so far is most likely that his devices are just too small (I'm not really familiar with his work though, so that's just a guess). You need a certain magnetic Reynolds number before dynamo action is even possible.

The magnetic Reynolds number is defined by R=vL/&eta;, where v is the velocity scale, L is the size of the system, and &eta; is the magnetic diffusivity. Either you need to attain really high fluid velocities, or the system needs to be large. I would be interested in seeing the Reynolds numbers he actually achieved for the smaller systems and what he expects for the 3m system but I can't find it anywhere on his site. Perhaps you could ask him?

dhris

zoobyshoe
dhris

What lies at the heart of the Lathrop experiment, then, seems to be the fact that "stable magnetic fields have been maintained by turbulent fluid flows", as you said, in "numerical simulations."

What concerns/confuses me is how the dynamics of the classic Faraday unipolar dynamo translate into this model of the Earth as a dynamo.

(You created a link earlier to something you referred to as a "two disc" dynamo but my little web tv system is not capable of accessing that site.) Tesla, it seems, was briefly intrigued by the realization that a disc of charged segments rotated relative to any conductor would induce current in that conductor, and sketched out what he thought would be the best configuration for a dynamo working on this principle. The term "two disc dynamo" puts me in mind of this. (Tesla just wanted to document his thinking about this, I guess. He states he didn't think it was efficient enough to have any practical application.)

Tesla's electrostatic dynamo has all the elements of the Faraday dynamo: magnetic field cuts conductor which induces current giving rise to stronger magnetic field which cuts conductor, etc.

I'm confused about what is doing what in the liquid sodium models.

-Zooby

dhris
What lies at the heart of the Lathrop experiment, then, seems to be the fact that "stable magnetic fields have been maintained by turbulent fluid flows", as you said, in "numerical simulations."

Well, that, and the fact that there are some theoretical results that show that turbulence with certain properties will be good at regenerating magnetic field. For example, turbulence that produces helical fluid motions, like what is seen in rotating convection, can be quite effective at regenerating field (probably the motivation for his propellers in that one experiment).

What concerns/confuses me is how the dynamics of the classic Faraday unipolar dynamo translate into this model of the Earth as a dynamo.

Well, the fluid plays the part of both the conducting disc AND the wire. Essentially, the effect of a conducting fluid on an magnetic field is to transport the magnetic field lines along with the fluid (a result known as Alfven's theorem). For example, in the limit of infinite conductivity, if an initial magnetic field vector connects two fluid elements at one time, it will connect the same two elements at all later times. This means that if the fluid elements move apart from each other (through straining or differential rotation), then the magnetic field vector connecting them will grow in magnitude, resulting in amplification. No fluid has infinite conductivity obviously, but the result is still approximately true when the conductivity is high. In turn, of course, stretching field lines like that means that the fluid has done some work, and so it loses energy (which is gained by the magnetic field).

Of course, in a turbulent situation, the fluid motion is unpredictable and it's hard to imagine any coherent amplification resulting. But it turns out that helical motions (essentially little tornados), even if they are somewhat randomly scattered throughout the core can produce an overall current in the fluid that leads to a large-scale field. The Earth is currently believed to be what's called an alpha-omega dynamo, which means that the primary sources of field regeneration are differential rotation and helical motions inside the core.

dhris

zoobyshoe
Originally posted by dhris
Essentially, the effect of a conducting fluid on an magnetic field is to transport the magnetic field lines along with the fluid (a result known as Alfven's theorem).
Why is this referred to as a
"theorem" rather than an "effect"?
"For example, in the limit of infinite conductivity,..."
I don't understand this. What is "the limit of infinite conductivity" ?
"This means that if the fluid elements move apart from each other (through straining..."
I'm not sure what the word "straining" means in this context.
No fluid has infinite conductivity obviously, but the result is still approximately true when the conductivity is high.
This brings me to a big question I had that I haven't brought up yet. At the tempertures we're talking about, isn't the conductivity almost nil?

I did a quick search on alfvens theorem and found that this all comes under the heading of magnetohydrodynamics. You, dhris, are the only person I've noticed here speaking about it (course, I don't read every post). What is this all about, and what success have they had in generating magnetic fields in the way you described above (it's called "regenerating"?).

Thanks for your time and effort. It's very much clearer.

-Zooby

dhris
Why is this referred to as a "theorem" rather than an "effect"?

Well, I'm not too sure what relegates something to a mere "theorem" rather than an "effect", but I would assume in this case it's because there's no real physical effect being discovered. The only physics is the fact that moving a conductor in a magnetic field produces currents in the conductor. Alfven's theorem provides us with a convenient way to visualize the effects of fluid motion on the magnetic field lines.

I'm not sure what the word "straining" means in this context.

Well, I'm basically just referring to the stretching of distances between fluid elements (something that is obviously not possible in a rigid conductor).

I don't understand this. What is "the limit of infinite conductivity" ?

I just mean we take the conductivity to be infinite in the equations. Alfven's theorem is strictly true only in this regime, but it is still approximately true for finite conductivity.

This brings me to a big question I had that I haven't brought up yet. At the tempertures we're talking about, isn't the conductivity almost nil?

No, the outer core has a fairly high conductivity, believed to be something like 10^5 (ohm-m)^-1, whereas saturated salt water at room temperature has a conductivity of around 20 (ohm-m)^-1.

I did a quick search on alfvens theorem and found that this all comes under the heading of magnetohydrodynamics. You, dhris, are the only person I've noticed here speaking about it (course, I don't read every post). [\QUOTE]

Magnetohydrodynamics is essentially just fluid mechanics in the presence of a magnetic field, ie the Navier-Stokes and Maxwell's equations. Unfortunately the actual practice is not so simple. The resulting system of equations is nonlinear, resulting in chaotic behaviour, meaning that exact solutions are only possible after making some serious approximations.

What is this all about, and what success have they had in generating magnetic fields in the way you described above (it's called "regenerating"?).

Depends what you mean by "success". It has only recently become possible to solve the full equations on computer (1997 was the first real result I believe). These simulations feature turbulent convective flow, and stable magnetic fields (I believe one code actually has reversals). However, even in those simulations, it is still not possible to use Earth-like parameters.

It is called "regenerating" because that's what dynamos do. They amplify and reinforce an already existing field. No external source of field is necessary (except for whatever caused the initial field). The question becomes one of determining what types of fluid flow are most advantageous for reinforcing the field, and how these flows are obtained.

Of course, as you and others have pointed out, there is quite a lot we don't know about planetary magnetic fields. What I have described is what seems to be considered the most likely candidate for the presence of our magnetic field. I'm sure there are many scientists with different ideas. I've even heard of one guy who thinks the field is maintained by the fluid motion in the oceans, and not the core at all!

dhris

Originally posted by dhris
I would be interested in seeing the Reynolds numbers he actually achieved for the smaller systems and what he expects for the 3m system but I can't find it anywhere on his site. Perhaps you could ask him?

dhris

From an e-mail sent by DPL
Brian,

Dyn 2, Re ~ 1000000 (Reynolds number)
Rm ~ 60 (magnetic Reynolds number)

Dyn 1 and 3 not clear, no velocity measurements

Dyn 3m system Rm ~ 400, Re ~ 7000000

yours
dpl

################################################################
Daniel P. Lathrop Office: (301) 405-1594
Associate Professor Labs:(301)405-7986 & 5-0654
Department of Physics FAX: (301) 405-1678
Two institutes: IREAP and IPST Home: (301) 879-7087
University of Maryland URL: http://complex.umd.edu
College Park, MD 20742 E-mail: dpl@complex.umd.edu
################################################################

Apearently he has the 3m working already. What is the difference between the Re and the Rm?

dhris
Interesting. Thanks for asking him. I would like to see what the results are for the 3m system. Hopefully he puts it on his site soon!
What is the difference between the Re and the Rm?
They are both dimensionless measures of the velocity. But Re is a measure of the velocity compared to the viscosity and is relevant for determining if the flow is turbulent. The magnetic Reynolds number measures the velocity compared to the magnetic diffusivity (related to the rate of decay of magnetic field) and is relevant for determining the possibility of dynamo action.

dhris

Originally posted by dhris
Interesting. Thanks for asking him. I would like to see what the results are for the 3m system. Hopefully he puts it on his site soon!
dhris

Well, great minds think alike (and coincidentally, so do ours ); I e-mailed him to ask for those results just before coming to the Forums today.

zoobyshoe
dhris,

Thanks once again for answering my questions.

The quote below is informaton I brought up in an earlier post in this thread. Since the temperature gradients inside the Earth are enormous it seems to me there would be a lot of current flowing around from that fact alone. What do you think of this?
The unnamed sub effect of the
Thompson Effect is described in my
encyclopedia like this:

duces an electric field can be ex-
plained as follows. Heating up one
end of the metal bar increases
the thermal velocities of the ele-
ctrons at that end. Consequently, they migrate toward the cooler end, creating an electric imbal-
ance and therefore an electric field."

-Zooby

dhris
Hmm, that's interesting Zoobyshoe. That would seem to be a potential source of current but I don't think I've ever seen it considered in a geodynamo. I will have to look into it and find out why not!

dhris

zoobyshoe
Originally posted by dhris
Hmm, that's interesting Zoobyshoe. That would seem to be a potential source of current but I don't think I've ever seen it considered in a geodynamo. I will have to look into it and find out why not!

dhris
I've done some more reading about the three thermoelectric effects and it is starting to look to me like the unnamed effect mentioned above would not be a source of current per se. It would more likely simply act as the source of an electric field arising from separation of charge. Given the huge temperature gradient I would expect this electric field to be massive enough to serve as the basis of the Earth's magnetic field, but that is sheer intuitive guesstimating.

If we extend the example of the voltage gradient in the hot metal bar to the Earth it creates a peculiar situation. The separation of charge would go from molten interior to cool exterior, and also from molten interior to cool solid core. The whole surface of the planet would have the same charge. There would be the inner molten layer of opposite charge, then the solid core, charged the same as the surface. I don't know what to make of that. If the surface all had the same charge, how could we ground anything?

andycass
pole reverslas

Nice question, i think you are on the same track as me, but i think you kmiss an essential element.
Let us not discuss the dynamos operating within earth, the key rebuttal to most modern dynamo theory is that moving the pole from N/S to S/N requires a wholesale restructuring of the Earth's inner structure and flow? That would seem impossible in the timescale suggested by pole reversals.

Let the questions be phreased thus

1 - could the existence of the extraterrestrial magnetic flux, electromagnetic energy and other solar energy play a role in promoting or energising some parts of the Earth's systems as measured at the surface and out into space and hinder others.

2 - What is the difference in the magnitude of the energy in its various forms acting on the bow shock area, so the sum of solar energy and the sum of terrestrial energy. I would guess (and herein lies my problem) that it is not many magnitudes different.

I do not believe that there is a dynamo in the earth, but many. Every part of moving core weather rotating or fluid flow of the outer core will have a resultant possibility of creating a dynamo. The problem lies in exciting the fields Once the thing is running, then the movement alone is way enough to generate the Earth's measurable field. Then why do they not all cancell eah other out. Well while the Earth orbits the sun we move thru a weak field. However this is not the whole story. The sun sends us huge amounts of electro-magnetic energy which interacts with the magnetosphere in many ways. some of which amounts to billions of amps of pure energy flowing towards the poles in arora, and abundent plasma.

My idea is that should the smallest field action on the huge area of the magnetosphere have a reinforcing effect on THE SUM OF ALL THE DYNAMOS, not that the Earth needs it to produce the energy in the first place, but in order for it to become the predominant ORIENTATION FOR the sum of the magnetic flux from a multitude of dynamo sources, and could a change or shock to the background field alter the sum equation?

Last, please let me indulge in rebutting some current theory relating to the "earth dynamo", my main issue is that the computer models are too simple using dipole assumptions about the outer core, with fluid movement in a roughly cylindrical shape oriented N/S. The diagram from Glatzmaier and Coe shows fluid movement while they state that the heat flux is evenly distributed, they then go to state that temperature flow in the lower mantel, (outside this diagram) created the pole reversal, in the same paragraph! This all the while completely ignores the mantle heat flux and physical structure with huge sheets of upwelling and convection, powerful enough to drive tectonic movement, and equally capable of carrying huge electrical and magnetic charge operating close to surface and therefore suffering far less of the dissipation due to distance.

I think we can arrive at some far simpler explanations with derivatives and proofs if we treat the Earth's structure as a sum of many dynamos, their orientation and structure, not critical to a proof, only that those which produce a N/S component will be reinforced over their brothers whose S/N orientation is inhibited by the interplay of the suns radiation and the magnetosphere, the physical structure can be left to seismic geologists and not computer mathematicians!

In addition, the flow and structure would not need to alter one bit to allow a reversal!

Cool don’t you think?

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dhris
Originally posted by zoobyshoe
I've done some more reading about the three thermoelectric effects and it is starting to look to me like the unnamed effect mentioned above would not be a source of current per se. It would more likely simply act as the source of an electric field arising from separation of charge. Given the huge temperature gradient I would expect this electric field to be massive enough to serve as the basis of the Earth's magnetic field, but that is sheer intuitive guesstimating.

No current=no magnetic field. It's that simple. Your electric field could cause currents to flow according to Ohm's law, but I don't see how these currents would produce the structure we see in the Earth's magnetic field, which is predominantly dipolar.

dhris

dhris

Originally posted by andycass
Nice question, i think you are on the same track as me, but i think you kmiss an essential element.
Let us not discuss the dynamos operating within earth, the key rebuttal to most modern dynamo theory is that moving the pole from N/S to S/N requires a wholesale restructuring of the Earth's inner structure and flow?
This is not true. What restructuring? Reversals occur due to the chaotic nature of the flow in the core. This flow does not need to undergo "wholesale" anything for a reversal.

Let the questions be phreased thus

1 - could the existence of the extraterrestrial magnetic flux, electromagnetic energy and other solar energy play a role in promoting or energising some parts of the Earth's systems as measured at the surface and out into space and hinder others.
To what parts are you referring? Energising what?

2 - What is the difference in the magnitude of the energy in its various forms acting on the bow shock area, so the sum of solar energy and the sum of terrestrial energy. I would guess (and herein lies my problem) that it is not many magnitudes different.

I do not believe that there is a dynamo in the earth, but many.
What do you mean? A dynamo is a system capable of regenerating its own magnetic field. Either the Earth acts as a dynamo or it doesn't.

Every part of moving core weather rotating or fluid flow of the outer core will have a resultant possibility of creating a dynamo. The problem lies in exciting the fields Once the thing is running, then the movement alone is way enough to generate the Earth's measurable field. Then why do they not all cancell eah other out.
What are "they" and why would they cancel?

My idea is that should the smallest field action on the huge area of the magnetosphere have a reinforcing effect on THE SUM OF ALL THE DYNAMOS, not that the Earth needs it to produce the energy in the first place, but in order for it to become the predominant ORIENTATION FOR the sum of the magnetic flux from a multitude of dynamo sources, and could a change or shock to the background field alter the sum equation?
You're going to have to rewrite this for me because I can't make heads or tails of it.

Last, please let me indulge in rebutting some current theory relating to the "earth dynamo", my main issue is that the computer models are too simple using dipole assumptions about the outer core, with fluid movement in a roughly cylindrical shape oriented N/S.
What are "dipole assumptions" about the outer core? If you mean they assume that the field is dipolar, then you are wrong. They don't assume that at all. And the flow is not constrained to any cylindrical N/S motion. If you are referring to the resulting convection, then it does indeed have this structure, but this a result of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equation for the problem and not anything that is input beforehand.

This all the while completely ignores the mantle heat flux and physical structure with huge sheets of upwelling and convection, powerful enough to drive tectonic movement, and equally capable of carrying huge electrical and magnetic charge operating close to surface and therefore suffering far less of the dissipation due to distance.
I'm quite sure it doesn't ignore that. Convective upwelling is considered to be essential for dynamo action.

I think we can arrive at some far simpler explanations with derivatives and proofs if we treat the Earth's structure as a sum of many dynamos
Ok. Let's have it then. Let's see these "proofs" and "derivatives" you speak of.

their orientation and structure, not critical to a proof, only that those which produce a N/S component will be reinforced over their brothers whose S/N orientation is inhibited by the interplay of the suns radiation and the magnetosphere
Why would this interplay serve to inhibit only the S/N orientations (of what I still don't know)? When the field reverses, shouldn't it be the opposite? But how could that be? Surely the external influences do not reverse as well.

the physical structure can be left to seismic geologists and not computer mathematicians!
Well, right now they're all happy to work on the problem.

In addition, the flow and structure would not need to alter one bit to allow a reversal!
Just like now.

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don rigby
1/ is it possible that the ferrous materials in the Earth is a contributing factor to the earth’s dynamo, and if so is it reflected in the models? (does the dynamo sustain a big magnet?)
2/ are the turbulences caused by the rough surfaces the molten liquid runs across, and if so are there three separate liquid flows, and if so does the dominating center flow cause the magnetic lines of the turbulent flow to bend and follow a dipolar pattern? is a rough surface finish reflected in the model and would it not help to maintain a more accurate rotational slip of the outer shell with regards to fluid velocity?
3/ do the turbulences cause many temperature differentials throughout the liquid adding to the "potential difference due to temperature difference" effect? (liquid cooled at surface spun back toward the center)
4/ why do we feel the core is cooler? Is it possible that the core only has a higher melting point, or is the model trying to create more temperature differentials?
5/ is there an amplifying effect of magnetic energy due to the vast difference in surface area covered per fluid rotation from the core to the outer shell, or do they just add, or does the rotational slip negate a vast difference?

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Well now, here is a rather confusing development.

According to this artical at Space.com, the sun's reversal of its magnetic polls is a result of (not the cause of) increased activity both sun spots and coronal massive ejections every eleven years at Solar Max. The increased activity "blows away" the old magnetic field, making room for the new. As far as I can tell, no explanation is provided for why the new magnetic field must be the inverse of the old field.

Obviously, this does not help much with the difficulties of understanding the Earth's magnetic field inversions. Until now, it has been assumed that the Earth's magnetic field reverses itself in the same way as the sun, and by similar mechanisms. However, I think it can be safely said that the Earth does not shed its old magnetic field in a cloud of ionized gases.

I think I'll have to put this one to Dr. Dan.

dhris
Originally posted by don rigby
1/ is it possible that the ferrous materials in the Earth is a contributing factor to the earth’s dynamo, and if so is it reflected in the models? (does the dynamo sustain a big magnet?)
Hello Don. According to the most predominantly held belief, the liquid iron in the Earth's outer core acts as the agent of current generation which reinforces the magnetic field. It is not a ferromagnetic effect, however. That is to say, there is not some gigantic bar magnet inside the Earth. The temperature is simply too high to maintain that type of permanent magnetism.

2/ are the turbulences caused by the rough surfaces the molten liquid runs across, and if so are there three separate liquid flows, and if so does the dominating center flow cause the magnetic lines of the turbulent flow to bend and follow a dipolar pattern? is a rough surface finish reflected in the model and would it not help to maintain a more accurate rotational slip of the outer shell with regards to fluid velocity?

Well, turbulence isn't necessarily caused by rough surfaces. Loosely speaking, the harder you drive a flow the more turbulent it will be. The flow in the core has a huge amount of power dumped into it by convection.

3/ do the turbulences cause many temperature differentials throughout the liquid adding to the "potential difference due to temperature difference" effect? (liquid cooled at surface spun back toward the center)

I'm not actually sure how big a contribution there would be due to this effect, if any. But as I mentioned above, I can't see that it would produce a coherent dipolar field, like the one we see.

4/ why do we feel the core is cooler? Is it possible that the core only has a higher melting point, or is the model trying to create more temperature differentials?

How do you mean cooler? If you mean why is the inner core solid iron and the outer core liquid iron, this is not because the inner core is necessarily cooler. The inner core is under tremendous pressure, making its melting point higher than that of the outer core.

5/ is there an amplifying effect of magnetic energy due to the vast difference in surface area covered per fluid rotation from the core to the outer shell, or do they just add, or does the rotational slip negate a vast difference?
I'm not quite sure what you mean by this. Currently held views assert that the amplification of the field happens within the liquid outer core due to the rearrangement of magnetic field lines.

dhris

don rigby
dhris
Thank you for your patience. If our roles were reversed I am not so sure I would be as forthcoming, however this leads to one more question before I stop annoying you.
In searching how pressure relates to magnetism, I am under the understanding that itinerant magnetism for the most part is reduced as pressure increases. is it possible that the cores pressure forces magnetic lines outward toward our atmosphere which may be considered a vacuum by comparison and then to the vacuum of space? what do you think?. I assure you, if your response to this question shows me once more the degree of my own ignorance, I will spend 10 minutes in the attempt of kicking myself squarely in the forehead and send you the video to do with as you please. simply reply: “read a book, then start kicking“. thanks again don

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dhris
Originally posted by don rigby
dhris
Thank you for your patience. If our roles were reversed I am not so sure I would be as forthcoming, however this leads to one more question before I stop annoying you.
Oh dear! I hope I don't give off the impression that I'm annoyed. Ok, I was a little annoyed by that other guy, but that's different. I actually quite enjoy talking about that extremely narrow set of things I know anything about.
In searching how pressure relates to magnetism, I am under the understanding that itinerant magnetism for the most part is reduced as pressure increases. is it possible that the cores pressure forces magnetic lines outward toward our atmosphere which may be considered a vacuum by comparison and then to the vacuum of space? what do you think?.
Well, magnetic field lines are certainly transported and stretched by the movement of the fluid, which is in turn partially affected by pressure differences. I wouldn't say that the thing you describe is something that is happening in the Earth, though. You don't need something like this to explain why there is an external magnetic field; a current generated in the core will produce a magnetic field that can be seen outside and is theoretically infinite in extent.

However, there is a phenomenon known as magnetic buoyancy which has been proposed as the mechanism that brings about coronal mass ejections on the sun (I'm not sure how widespread the acceptance is though).
The basic idea is that regions of large magnetic field create pockets of buoyancy, which drives the fluid upward bringing the magnetic field lines along with it. When it reaches the surface, the fluid and field are blown into space, like you suggested.
I assure you, if your response to this question shows me once more the degree of my own ignorance, I will spend 10 minutes in the attempt of kicking myself squarely in the forehead and send you the video to do with as you please. simply reply: “read a book, then start kicking“. thanks again don
I would never counsel someone to kick himself in the forehead to aid in understanding something, nor would I enjoy watching the resulting video. Besides, many of the issues in this field are far from settled and are still widely debated. Everybody has to claim some degree of ignorance since present understanding could easily turn out to be wrong!

dhris

don rigby
dhris
Here we go again, way out beyond another practical limb, as I can not find related studies. This idea was brought on by the fact that the inner core is solid due to pressure. Does this indicate an outward acceleration?(gravity?) I was under the impression that conductivity decreases due to the random and excited movement of electrons as temperature increases. Is it possible that this effect might be reduced by pressure and acceleration, by way of reducing this random movement through mechanical forces, or perhaps by pulling heavily laden atoms (heavy with extra electrons therefore less conductive) toward the inner core due to their mass? Have you read any studies on the relationship of “conductivity vs. temperature vs. pressure” and “conductivity vs. temperature vs. rotary acceleration”? finally, if an experiment has been done with all four variables, was conductivity checked toward the center of the centrifuge? I think this is critical due to the reversed direction of acceleration. (or is once again, left field the place for this “rambling on and on…”)
Thanks don

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dhris
Originally posted by don rigby
dhris
Here we go again, way out beyond another practical limb, as I can not find related studies. This idea was brought on by the fact that the inner core is solid due to pressure. Does this indicate an outward acceleration?(gravity?)

Well, it is under pressure due to gravity, certainly, just like the pressure is huge at the bottom of the ocean. But it is not the cause of any outward acceleration of the core. There is upward convection of fluid, but that is caused by buoyancy (which I guess is just a manifestation of pressure differences...).

I was under the impression that conductivity decreases due to the random and excited movement of electrons as temperature increases. Is it possible that this effect might be reduced by pressure and acceleration, by way of reducing this random movement through mechanical forces, or perhaps by pulling heavily laden atoms (heavy with extra electrons therefore less conductive) toward the inner core due to their mass? Have you read any studies on the relationship of “conductivity vs. temperature vs. pressure” and “conductivity vs. temperature vs. rotary acceleration”? finally, if an experiment has been done with all four variables, was conductivity checked toward the center of the centrifuge? I think this is critical due to the reversed direction of acceleration. (or is once again, left field the place for this “rambling on and on…”)
Thanks don
Well, if you're asking whether the conductivity is too low in the Earth's core, it is though to be somewhere around $$10^5 (\Omega m)^{-1}$$ whereas the conductivity of salt water is around $$25 (\Omega m)^{-1}$$. I don't know a lot about the relationships you're talking about up there, but I'm sure they're not hard to find on the web somewhere.

dhris

andycass

[You're going to have to rewrite this for me because I can't make heads or tails of it.

Yeah sorry, i was getting ahead of myself and rambling a bit.

"What are "dipole assumptions" about the outer core? "

I think, but am not sure, that for the simulation to work there are some starting criteria, and that part of this was an inner core rotation and direction, also core rotation being non pressesional, among others.

"If you are referring to the resulting convection, then it does indeed have this structure, but this a result of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equation for the problem and not anything that is input beforehand. "

However my point is the result shows convection and therefore moving material flowing in this form but as far as i have heard, the heat flow and (i assume that it is directly related to convection flow) material movements are chaotic. I feel that this is inconsistent.

To dig my hole deeper, i am thinking of a harmonic interaction in the magnetosphere if I might draw on a memorable analogy, the force of the wind blowing on the Tacoma narrows bridge. The wind in no way could cause the bridge to fail, but there was a harmony in the structure that the slightest wind exerting only 10's of Newtons pressure on the structure caused... you will probably remember.

I assume that energy in the magnetosphere, almost irrespective of its form, weather as charged plasma, light, solar wind magnetism and other forms, and flowing in patterns and being shaped as dictated by the magnetic field could have a similar effect, This is the excited dynamo, and any parts of the chaotic interior of the Earth that 'fit with' the structure will become dominant. Further, by measurably changing the structure of the magnetosphere by effects of a sun storm the harmonics change and reinforce the magnetic potential of different flow regimes within the earth. If there is chaotic flow regimes then it stands to reason that a dynamo effect could take up any orientation, but those within a harmonised regime would generate far more field by exciting the dynamo.

Hope this helps

rootiedude
"geo-magnetic field , is fadin fast?

Yes sir.. lookin like you got it right, "dude"
todays ny.Times states our magnetic field is fizzling.
im unlcear 'bout how this will effect the "general" welfare
of my planet? does anyone have any ideas..
( i'd love to hear 'em..
i an NOT buyin the "ole" Earth ok, noting to be concerned about
bull.. that we bound to see..
how many ways can this affect life??
(gosh i can think of endless posiblities
anyway.. my friends it's been nice knowing ya..
when the lightin flies.. an stuff starts burning ?
well , we could blame massive E.M.F. power lines strung everywhere?
solar mass ejection. nuclear testing.. any ole electromagnetic
event , that effected good ole mother Earth's natural magnetic field.
('course, what's the chances our power mad manipulations , rampant energy needs could have effected a magnetic field.. like the Earth's.
or that could have effected the Suns?
sheezz?

Mentor
I watched the NOVA program recently about the magnetic field "flip" and it has interviews with Daniel Lathrop.

For the average layperson, like me, this was very interesting. I am providing a link to the site.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/magnetic/