I have the definition that if F is a finite field then a [itex]\in[/itex] F is a primitive root if ord(a) = |F|-1.(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});

Now what I don't understand is how exactly are there [itex]\phi(|F|-1)[/itex] primitive roots?

(Note: This material is supposed not to use any group theory.)

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# Primitive roots

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