1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data Show that (x^p^n) - x = product (product c(x)) where the product is taken over irreducible polynomials c(x) in F[x] (order of F[x]=p). (the inside product is taken over polynomials of degree d and the outside product is taken for all d such that d divides n) 3. The attempt at a solution First off I don't really understand the notation. Is this just one sum over 2 notations? Or is it 2 notations and 2 sums? After that, I don't even know how to approach the question.