Hi! This will be my first post :P Ever since I was a little kid I've wondered what exactly an atom is. Apparently these atoms have smaller particles like electrons, neutrons and protons which have mass (I am assuming its proven? If not I want proof!) and the nucleus of the atom is held together with nuclear forces (right?). I know the basic stuff about atoms, but I want to know exactly why the protons have a positive charge and electrons have a negative charge. I know that the proton and neutron have the + & - charge simply because its convention and physically proven, but I want to know specifically how the charge is created? Also, abiding by the laws of thermodynamics for now, I also want to know how the atom gains the energy to create charge and the nuclear force that holds the atom together ( I am assuming the energy comes from external forces like sunlight in photosynthesis). If you guys have any information on the properties of atoms please share them with me as I need basic knowledge before I move on.