# Proving trigo identity

Prove that
$$\sec x + \tan x = \tan \left (\frac{\pi}{4} + \frac{x}{2}\right )$$

I've got to
$$\sec x + \tan x = \frac{1+\sin x}{\cos x}$$
and then I was stuck. Tried half angle but it didn't seem to work.

Hurkyl
Staff Emeritus
Gold Member
There are two sides to the equation -- it sounds like you've only fiddled with the left hand side. arildno
Homework Helper
Gold Member
Dearly Missed
Neat!
I've never seen that trig. identity before..

Well, manipulating RHS gives
$$\tan \left (\frac{\pi}{4} + \frac{x}{2} \right )$$
$$= \frac{\tan\frac{\pi}{4}+\tan\frac{x}{2}}{1-\tan\frac{\pi}{4}\tan\frac{x}{2}}$$
$$=\frac{1+\tan\frac{x}{2}}{1-\tan\frac{x}{2}}$$

and applying half angle to LHS gives
$$\frac{1+\sin x}{\cos x}$$
$$=\frac{1+2\sin\frac{x}{2}\cos\frac{x}{2}}{1-2\sin\frac{x}{2}\sin\frac{x}{2}}$$

Hmm.. how can $$\tan\frac{x}{2}$$ be equal to
$$2\sin\frac{x}{2}\cos\frac{x}{2}}$$
and
$$2\sin\frac{x}{2}\sin\frac{x}{2}}$$ at the same time?

Curious3141
Homework Helper
Here's help. :)

Try to manipulate the more complicated side to get the less complicated side. In this case, work on the RHS to get the LHS. Try not to work from both sides at once.

Let the respective sin, cos and tan trig ratios of x/2 be s, c and t. Let those of x be S, C and T. I'm doing this because I'm really fed up of clunky LaTex.

Taking it from where you left off,

RHS :

$$\frac{1+\tan\frac{x}{2}}{1-\tan\frac{x}{2}}$$
$$=\frac{(1 + t)^2}{(1-t)(1 + t)}$$
$$=\frac{1 + t^2 + 2t}{1 - t^2}$$
$$=\frac{1 + t^2 + 2t}{\frac{c^2 - s^2}{c^2}}$$
$$=\frac{(1 + t^2 + 2t)(c^2)}{C}$$
$$=\frac{c^2 + s^2 + 2sc}{C}$$
$$=\frac{1 + S}{C}$$
$$=\sec{x} + \tan{x}$$ (QED)

Curious3141
Homework Helper
BTW, the proof (and the original identity) fail for t = -1. In the proof, it's because I multiply the RHS by (1+t)/(1+t). In the orig. identity, the LHS becomes undefined while the RHS remains finite (so the failure is consistent).

Thanks for your help dextercioby
Homework Helper
You know

$$\sec x+\tan x=\frac{1}{\cos x}+\frac{\sin x}{\cos x}=\frac{1+\sin x}{\cos x}$$ (1)

Th RHS is

$$\frac{1+\tan\frac{x}{2}}{1-\tan\frac{x}{2}}=\frac{1+\frac{\sin^{2}\frac{x}{2}}{\cos^{2}\frac{x}{2}}+2\frac{\sin\frac{x}{2}}{\cos\frac{x}{2}}}{1-\frac{\sin^{2}\frac{x}{2}}{\cos^{2}\frac{x}{2}}}$$

$$=\frac{\cos^{2}\frac{x}{2}+\sin^{2}\frac{x}{2}+2\cos\frac{x}{2}\sin\frac{x}{2}}{\cos^{2}\frac{x}{2} -\sin^{2}\frac{x}{2}}=\frac{1+\sin x}{\cos x}$$

(Q.e.d.)

,pretty simple,right...?

Daniel.

Last edited:
arildno
Homework Helper
Gold Member
Dearly Missed
I think he mentioned that identity in post 1, Daniel.. dextercioby