Hello, I need help with modulation techniques. If I have a sequence I want to transmit, and need to be modulated, how do I know its length? : I know the time duration of the sequence=t => t/T(carrier period)=number of cycles per sequence. (number_cycles_per_sequence/number_periods_per_symbol)*number_bit_per_symbol = total number of bits per sequence. 1) So, now my question is, how do I decide the value of number_periods_per_symbol? I guess I also need this value for the symbol clock when demodulation, no? 2) when I create modulation - I modulate the sequence of bits. How long will take each 2 bits (one symbol=2 bits for qpsk)? that's exactly the question in 1, right? - deciding number_periods_per_symbols? So this value I guess must be somewhere in the formula for creating the qpsk modulation? Regards, Hanan.