# Quarks make the neutrons and protons

#### benzun_1999

Does any one know about Quark. i know that quarks make the nutrons and protons. But i still dont understand it clearly.

Benzun

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#### KLscilevothma

a website

http://blueflag.phys.yorku.ca/yhep/main.html [Broken]
Here I quote a paragraph from the above website. This website is quite interesting and easy to read.

To start with, there are six types of quarks (plus their six antiquarks), which are coupled into three pairs. They are the up-down, the charm-strange, and the top-bottom (sometimes known as truth-beauty). Another interesting fact about quarks is that you can never find one by itself, as they are always with other quarks arranged to form a composite particle. The name for these composite particles is "hadrons". Quarks, like protons and electrons, have electric charge. However, their electric charges are fractional charges, either 2/3 or -1/3 (-2/3 and 1/3 for antiquarks), and they always arrange to form particles with an integer charge (ie. -1, 0, 1, 2...).
After reading this website, I'm sure you can get lots of information about elementary particles besides quarks.

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#### eNtRopY

All matter is composed of quarks and/or leptons. These are the fundamental particles of matter. For example, look at a simple hydrogen atom. It has a single proton and a single electron. The proton is composed of three quarks (two ups and one down); the electron is a specific type of lepton. A deuterium isotope is a hydrogen atom with a neutron in the nucleus. Like the proton, the neutron is also composed of three quarks (one up and two downs).

String theorists tell us that quarks and leptons are fundamentally composed an identical entity, the string. The characteristic that gives rise to the difference between these two species is the mode of vibration of the said string.

eNtRopY

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#### FZ+

entropy: Haven't you forgotten gluons there?

#### eNtRopY

Originally posted by FZ+
entropy: Haven't you forgotten gluons there?
Well, I don't think there is any type of matter that is composed of gluons... so no, I didn't forget gluons.

But what do I know? I am but a mere quantum engineer. The information I have provided is what I remember from sophomore-level modern physics. Typically, I only deal with the theory of quantum mechanics... I don't get into the standard model... and I don't really don't worry about the structure of matter that often.

eNtRopY

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#### eNtRopY

Originally posted by eNtRopY
Well, I don't think there is any type of matter that is composed of gluons... so no, I didn't forget gluons.

But what do I know?
I guess I'm wrong, I have just learned that in theory there exists a particle composed of gluons called a glueball. Suffice it to say, you won't find any ordinary matter composed of gluons.

eNtRopY

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#### jeff

Originally posted by eNtRopY String theorists tell us that quarks and leptons are fundamentally composed an identical entity, the string. The characteristic that gives rise to the difference between these two species is the mode of vibration of the said string.
Yang-mills gauge charges sit at the ends of open strings and are not determined by vibrational degrees of freedom.

#### eNtRopY

Originally posted by jeff
Yang-mills gauge charges sit at the ends of open strings and are not determined by vibrational degrees of freedom.
And I'm sure that means so much to the beginner inquiring about what quarks are... jeff.

eNtRopY

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