I am actually a philosophy student that is dabbling in physics, so the nature of this question may seem a bit strange. My question is regarding whether electromagnetic charges are disjunctive in nature. In case you are not familiar with the philosophy lingo, a disjunctive property is one in which the underlying physical properties seem to have nothing that really unifies them, but the macro features all fit into a single category. For example, redness is often called a disjunctive property because the underlying physical properties of red objects are all so different. It has been suggested that charge is an example of such a disjunctive property. What I am wondering is if charge has any underlying physical nature such that both positive and negative charges really have something deeply in common, at least according to some accepted theories. I know that protons are made up of quarks, and that electrons are a type of lepton, and that protons are vastly larger than electrons, so the charges seem do seem, at least on the surface, very different in nature. I know that mathematically the charge on an electron needs to balance out the charge on a proton, and that when a neutron decays it emits a proton and an electron and an antineutrino. Is there anything in all this that suggests that there is an underlying physical property that the charges might share? As I was trying to find an answer I ran across an article published in the General Science Journal at http://www.wbabin.net/physics/albertini.htm that seemed to suggest that according to superstring theory (or subquantium theory?) that, at least for magnetism, both positive and negative charges might be caused by space-time wave functions in different phases (see the illusion of magnetism section). Is this an accepted theory, and if so could it also be applied to particle charges? Thanks! Any ideas are appreciated!