# Questions on the Zeeman Effect

• Athenian
In summary: Q2. It doesn't matter what units are used to measure the diameters, as long as the same units are used.
Athenian
Homework Statement
N/A (Refer below for more details)
Relevant Equations
N/A
*Data Location:

Recently, I have been working on a lab project on the Zeeman effect. After conducting the laboratory work necessary to produce the Zeeman effect, the results were saved as a photo and pasted together as a PDF file. To view the images (in PDF format), please refer to the Google drive shared link here.

Question 1:

In the lab, I was asked to show three images (with the ones I have already available in the PDFs) that correspond to the normal Zeeman effect. Each image with the normal Zeeman effect should correspond to the 1. longitudinal unpolarized, 2. transverse ##\sigma##-polarized, and 3. transverse unpolarized. In other words, 1 image (i.e. with normal Zeeman effect) for each PDF file - totaling to 3 images for 3 PDF files as each PDF file corresponds to a different orientation.

However, my question is, don't all the images (after a current ##I## is applied) in all the PDFs correspond to the normal Zeeman effect? Or, do only the last images (i.e. ##I \approx 8 A##) in all the PDFs correspond to the normal Zeeman effect instead?

Question 2:

I am supposed to graph the areal ratios (##\delta / \Delta##) as a function of the magnetic field (##B##) for all 3 given orientations. To find the areal ratios, I need the diameter of each ring in my given images. I have been asked to use a ruler to get the diameter of each ring. While capturing the diameters of each ring is easy, how do I ensure that I measure the rings to scale? In other words, I may measure the diameters in centimeters when the diameter (scaled properly) ought to be in the micrometers. I have seen some use a software called Motic Images Plus. But, as I do not have said software, are there any ways around the measurement issue?

Those are all the questions I have for the time being. Thank you for reading through this post!

Athenian said:
Homework Statement:: N/A (Refer below for more details)
Relevant Equations:: N/A

*Data Location:

Recently, I have been working on a lab project on the Zeeman effect. After conducting the laboratory work necessary to produce the Zeeman effect, the results were saved as a photo and pasted together as a PDF file. To view the images (in PDF format), please refer to the Google drive shared link here.

Question 1:

In the lab, I was asked to show three images (with the ones I have already available in the PDFs) that correspond to the normal Zeeman effect. Each image with the normal Zeeman effect should correspond to the 1. longitudinal unpolarized, 2. transverse ##\sigma##-polarized, and 3. transverse unpolarized. In other words, 1 image (i.e. with normal Zeeman effect) for each PDF file - totaling to 3 images for 3 PDF files as each PDF file corresponds to a different orientation.

However, my question is, don't all the images (after a current ##I## is applied) in all the PDFs correspond to the normal Zeeman effect? Or, do only the last images (i.e. ##I \approx 8 A##) in all the PDFs correspond to the normal Zeeman effect instead?

Question 2:

I am supposed to graph the areal ratios (##\delta / \Delta##) as a function of the magnetic field (##B##) for all 3 given orientations. To find the areal ratios, I need the diameter of each ring in my given images. I have been asked to use a ruler to get the diameter of each ring. While capturing the diameters of each ring is easy, how do I ensure that I measure the rings to scale? In other words, I may measure the diameters in centimeters when the diameter (scaled properly) ought to be in the micrometers. I have seen some use a software called Motic Images Plus. But, as I do not have said software, are there any ways around the measurement issue?

Those are all the questions I have for the time being. Thank you for reading through this post!
If I understand correctly...

Q1. The normal Zeeman Effect (NZE) was occurring during all your photos with I>0. But the amount of 'line-splitting' is proportional the the magnetic field, so it is proportional to I. Therefore the NZE became more clearly visible as the current increased. It is most clearly seen for the largest values of current.

Q2. You haven't stated what ##\delta \text { and } \Delta## are. If they are areas of rings, then it doesn''t matter what units are used to measure the diameters - providing the same units are used. Can you see why?

Hope that's what you meant.

Athenian
Steve4Physics said:
Q1. The normal Zeeman Effect (NZE) was occurring during all your photos with I>0. But the amount of 'line-splitting' is proportional the the magnetic field, so it is proportional to I. Therefore the NZE became more clearly visible as the current increased. It is most clearly seen for the largest values of current.
To my best understanding, this is correct. Or, at the very least, that's my line of thought too. However, it just seems odd that the instructor wants me to provide three images of the normal Zeeman effect when nearly all of them fit the given criteria. Then again, perhaps I am overanalyzing the task.

Steve4Physics said:
Q2. You haven't stated what δ and Δ are. If they are areas of rings, then it doesn''t matter what units are used to measure the diameters - providing the same units are used. Can you see why?
Yes, they are the areas of the rings. I just realized that the units would simply cancel out and thus the units here would not have possessed any significance in the calculation process. Beyond that, the hint is in the name (i.e. areal ratio). Thus, my calculation would definitely be "scaled" correctly.

Steve4Physics

## 1. What is the Zeeman Effect?

The Zeeman Effect is a phenomenon in which the spectral lines of an atom or molecule are split into multiple components when placed in a magnetic field. This splitting is caused by the interaction between the magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moment of the atom or molecule.

## 2. Who discovered the Zeeman Effect?

The Zeeman Effect was discovered by Dutch physicist Pieter Zeeman in 1896. He observed the splitting of spectral lines in the presence of a strong magnetic field while studying the emission spectrum of a heated gas.

## 3. What are the applications of the Zeeman Effect?

The Zeeman Effect has many applications in various fields of science. It is used in spectroscopy to study the energy levels and magnetic properties of atoms and molecules. It is also used in astrophysics to determine the magnetic fields of stars and other celestial objects. In addition, the Zeeman Effect has practical applications in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

## 4. How does the Zeeman Effect affect the behavior of electrons?

The Zeeman Effect affects the behavior of electrons by causing the energy levels of the electrons to split into multiple sublevels. This splitting is due to the interaction between the magnetic field and the magnetic dipole moment of the electron. The electrons will then occupy the sublevels according to the Pauli exclusion principle, which states that no two electrons can occupy the same energy state.

## 5. Can the Zeeman Effect be observed in everyday life?

The Zeeman Effect is not typically observed in everyday life as it requires a strong magnetic field and specialized equipment to detect the splitting of spectral lines. However, it is indirectly observed in everyday technologies such as MRI machines and NMR spectrometers, which use the principles of the Zeeman Effect to function.

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