# Questions on the Zeeman Effect

• Athenian
Q2. It doesn't matter what units are used to measure the diameters, as long as the same units are used.f

#### Athenian

Homework Statement
N/A (Refer below for more details)
Relevant Equations
N/A
*Data Location:

Recently, I have been working on a lab project on the Zeeman effect. After conducting the laboratory work necessary to produce the Zeeman effect, the results were saved as a photo and pasted together as a PDF file. To view the images (in PDF format), please refer to the Google drive shared link here.

Question 1:

In the lab, I was asked to show three images (with the ones I have already available in the PDFs) that correspond to the normal Zeeman effect. Each image with the normal Zeeman effect should correspond to the 1. longitudinal unpolarized, 2. transverse ##\sigma##-polarized, and 3. transverse unpolarized. In other words, 1 image (i.e. with normal Zeeman effect) for each PDF file - totaling to 3 images for 3 PDF files as each PDF file corresponds to a different orientation.

However, my question is, don't all the images (after a current ##I## is applied) in all the PDFs correspond to the normal Zeeman effect? Or, do only the last images (i.e. ##I \approx 8 A##) in all the PDFs correspond to the normal Zeeman effect instead?

Question 2:

I am supposed to graph the areal ratios (##\delta / \Delta##) as a function of the magnetic field (##B##) for all 3 given orientations. To find the areal ratios, I need the diameter of each ring in my given images. I have been asked to use a ruler to get the diameter of each ring. While capturing the diameters of each ring is easy, how do I ensure that I measure the rings to scale? In other words, I may measure the diameters in centimeters when the diameter (scaled properly) ought to be in the micrometers. I have seen some use a software called Motic Images Plus. But, as I do not have said software, are there any ways around the measurement issue?

Those are all the questions I have for the time being. Thank you for reading through this post!

Homework Statement:: N/A (Refer below for more details)
Relevant Equations:: N/A

*Data Location:

Recently, I have been working on a lab project on the Zeeman effect. After conducting the laboratory work necessary to produce the Zeeman effect, the results were saved as a photo and pasted together as a PDF file. To view the images (in PDF format), please refer to the Google drive shared link here.

Question 1:

In the lab, I was asked to show three images (with the ones I have already available in the PDFs) that correspond to the normal Zeeman effect. Each image with the normal Zeeman effect should correspond to the 1. longitudinal unpolarized, 2. transverse ##\sigma##-polarized, and 3. transverse unpolarized. In other words, 1 image (i.e. with normal Zeeman effect) for each PDF file - totaling to 3 images for 3 PDF files as each PDF file corresponds to a different orientation.

However, my question is, don't all the images (after a current ##I## is applied) in all the PDFs correspond to the normal Zeeman effect? Or, do only the last images (i.e. ##I \approx 8 A##) in all the PDFs correspond to the normal Zeeman effect instead?

Question 2:

I am supposed to graph the areal ratios (##\delta / \Delta##) as a function of the magnetic field (##B##) for all 3 given orientations. To find the areal ratios, I need the diameter of each ring in my given images. I have been asked to use a ruler to get the diameter of each ring. While capturing the diameters of each ring is easy, how do I ensure that I measure the rings to scale? In other words, I may measure the diameters in centimeters when the diameter (scaled properly) ought to be in the micrometers. I have seen some use a software called Motic Images Plus. But, as I do not have said software, are there any ways around the measurement issue?

Those are all the questions I have for the time being. Thank you for reading through this post!
If I understand correctly...

Q1. The normal Zeeman Effect (NZE) was occurring during all your photos with I>0. But the amount of 'line-splitting' is proportional the the magnetic field, so it is proportional to I. Therefore the NZE became more clearly visible as the current increased. It is most clearly seen for the largest values of current.

Q2. You haven't stated what ##\delta \text { and } \Delta## are. If they are areas of rings, then it doesn''t matter what units are used to measure the diameters - providing the same units are used. Can you see why?

Hope that's what you meant.

• Athenian
Q1. The normal Zeeman Effect (NZE) was occurring during all your photos with I>0. But the amount of 'line-splitting' is proportional the the magnetic field, so it is proportional to I. Therefore the NZE became more clearly visible as the current increased. It is most clearly seen for the largest values of current.
To my best understanding, this is correct. Or, at the very least, that's my line of thought too. However, it just seems odd that the instructor wants me to provide three images of the normal Zeeman effect when nearly all of them fit the given criteria. Then again, perhaps I am overanalyzing the task.

Q2. You haven't stated what δ and Δ are. If they are areas of rings, then it doesn''t matter what units are used to measure the diameters - providing the same units are used. Can you see why?
Yes, they are the areas of the rings. I just realized that the units would simply cancel out and thus the units here would not have possessed any significance in the calculation process. Beyond that, the hint is in the name (i.e. areal ratio). Thus, my calculation would definitely be "scaled" correctly.

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