I need some clarifications on the following concepts: 1.When an α-particle is released by a radio active sample, it loses a charge of +2. Similarly, when it loses a β particle it gains one positive charge. But there is no change in the number of electrons in the outer orbits of the radio active atoms. It means each atom after releasing an α or β particle becomes either a negative or positive ion. Does it mean that any given radio sample consists of a mixture of neutral atoms and ions? Also does it mean that the sample is in a charged state unlike a non radio active samples which are only neutral? If that is true, what is the physical significance or consequence of such a state? 2.Also, when a radio active sample disintegrates, it continuously undergoes transformations into new elements due to α and β decay. For example, if a Uranium sample emits two successive α-particles it becomes Th and Ra and so on. Does it mean that at any given time a radio active sample will contain different proportions of almost all the other possible radio active elements? I will be thankful to any body who enlightens me over these points.