In a particle physics formalism, electromagnetism can be described in terms of interchange of virtual photons.(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});

The range is then c.t = hbar / E

with t the lifetime, and E the energy of the virtual particle.

What is the argument then, for long range EM interactions, in terms of E?

Is it that the photon is simply produced with low enough frequency to cover the necessary distance? To me, this implies that the virtual photon "knows" how far it must travel, before it does so.

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# Range of electromagnetism

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