I bought a biophysics book the other day, and immediately began reading it. Sadly, I'm only 12 pages in now, because I seem to have run up against a wall in my understanding. You see, I don't understand a step being taken in the math, and am not sure what I should learn to understand it better. image of paragraph. Specifically, what loses me is the V-hat object - no idea what that is. And furthermore, I don't know where the 2pi*i term comes from. I know the bare basics of Fourier Transform, but I think there's something missing. And Koch doesn't define the V-hat object. (I'm life sciences, please forgive my ignorance.) Any tips would be majorly appreciated!