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mysearch

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A. Doppler Redshift caused by relative velocity.

B. Gravitational Redshift caused by a change in frequency.

C. Time Dilation Redshift is caused by relative time.

D. Cosmological Redshift caused by the expansion of space.

I have numbered a list of assumptions, which I accept may be wrong, but it is hoped that some of the members of the physics forum might be able to clarify some of the points. Specific questions associated with these assumptions are highlighted:

1. In vacuum, light as an electromagnetic wave is generally assumed to travel at a constant speed [c]. This speed can be related to frequency [f] and wavelength [tex]\lambda[/tex] by the equation [tex]c=f\lambda[/tex].

2. The energy of a light wave is linked to the Planck equation E=hf.

3. As a wave, energy defines the frequency. If [c] is constant, then the wavelength is defined by [tex] \lambda=c/f [/tex]. However, in a wider context, it might be said that the media defines the propagation speed, which for a vacuum might be interpreted as permittivity and permeability.

4. The introduction of quantum theory suggests that light travels in discrete quanta, i.e. photons. If the Planck and Einstein equations are linked, i.e. [tex]E=mc^2=hf[/tex], then photons have an analogous particle nature and a kinetic mass, although no rest mass.

5. However, there appears to be no generally accepted description of the structure of a photon, either as a wave or particle.

**The first question is simply whether these general assumptions are OK?**

The next set of assumptions are linked to the effects associated with gravity, specifically in connection to the Schwarzschild metric and black holes event horizons:

6. In any frame of reference time passes at a rate of 1 second per second.

7. However, the observed time from another frame of reference can differ due to the effects of gravity and velocity.

8. If two twins (A) & (B) are initially collocated, but twin (B) then starts to approach an event horizon of a black hole, (A) observes time in (B) running ever slower.

*Note: In order to initially restrict the issues to gravity, assume that the velocity of (B) is always non-relativistic and therefore has no appreciable effect on spacetime.*

9. The time dilation is

*`real`*in the sense that if (B) returns to (A) then (B) will be physically younger than (A).

10. If time in (B) runs slower than (A), any photons emitted from (B) and received at (A) must have reduced energy based on the Planck equation E=hf, because frequency [f] is a function of time.

11. Photons from (B) received at (A) will be increasingly redshifted.

**Again, are these assumptions OK?**

Does this effect explain why the in-falling twin will disappears, from the perspective of (A), before reaching the event horizon?

Does this effect explain why the in-falling twin will disappears, from the perspective of (A), before reaching the event horizon?

If we assume that twin (B) stops along the way, there is no relative velocity between (A) and (B). Therefore, any redshift has to be explained by either gravitational redshift or time dilation. In the context described, time dilation appeared to be a factor, although we have not mention anything about the relative effects on space, as yet. The next set of assumption switch the frame of reference to (B), i.e. twin (B) looking back out at twin (A):

12. If time in (B) runs slower than (A), then time in (A) is running faster than (B).

13. Therefore, photons from (A) received at (B) should be increasingly blueshifted by the arguments of time dilation alone.

14. While the previous redshift scenario ultimately leads to photons having no effective energy, the reverse scenario seems more problematic in that it implies that photons would be received at (B) from (A) with ever increasing energy.

15. However, if the radial distance from (B) to (A) effectively expands due to the relativistic effects of gravity, the wavelength of a photon [tex]\lambda[/tex] would effectively increase during propagation from (A) to (B).

16. Based on the assumptions in [1] and [2], any change in wavelength during propagation would seem to suggest that frequency would also change on route, if [c] remains constant.

17. So while the photon is sourced at a higher frequency, due to the relative time rates at (A) and (B), space expansion along the way compensates by stretching the wavelength and lowering the frequency. If so, no blue shift would occur from (A) to (B) and the ever-increasing energy issue is avoided.

**If gravitational redshift differs from time-dilation redshift is it because it affects both space and time?**

It is realised that the space expansion argument in [17] would also have to be applicable to [10, 11], albeit in reverse, thereby negating the expected redshift. I realise these assumptions probably contradict theory and observation, but would like to better understand why. The final sets of bullets essentially try to summarise the outcome of the previous assumptions:

19. Photons emitted at (B) have a lower frequency due to time dilation.

20. At (A) the tick of the clock is faster than (B)

21. Therefore, photons emitted at (A) have a higher frequency.

22. Photon wavelength increases when propagating from (A) to (B).

23. Photon wavelength decreases when propagating from (B) to (A).

24. (A) to (B)

25. Starts with higher frequency due to faster clocks at (A)

26. Wavelength increases due to space expansion from (A) to (B)

27. These effects cancel, hence no blueshift.

28. (B) to (A)

29. Starts with lower frequency due to slower clocks at (B)

30. Wavelength decreases due to space contracting from (B) to (A)

31. These effects would cancel, hence no redshift.

Would appreciate any clarification offered on any of these assumptions.

Thanks