I'm trying to understand recombination losses and ways to improve and reduce them in a standard crystalline silicon cell? I've been looking online for a while now but can't find any simple explanations. I understand recombination occurs when a conduction band electron loses energy and re-occupies the energy state of an electron hole in the valence band. Ideally, we want this to happen as an electron flows out of a P-type semiconductor, around a wire, through a load, and back into the N-type semiconductor. Sometimes though, recombination can occur in the N-type, P-type and surface of the junction, which means less power is generated. How are these recombination losses reduced?