So I'm trying to get into research and so a teacher of mine gave me a paper of his to read and understand. Unfortunately theres enough things in this paper that is not described online. Here are couple questions that I have. Why would counting the number of local oscillators in an optical lattice after detuning give you time in an atomic clock? I'm guessing it has something to due with phase change as a function of time evolution. What is meant squeezing spins to entangle atoms? I'm guessing it has something to due with forcing particular atoms to in a particular state that they act like identical particles. What is a Ramsey-Type measurement protocol? None of this was taught by my upper division level undergraduate classes so its a bit difficult to try to find information on this stuff. Also if you can let me know where to find this information, please let me know ..... Thank you so much.