# Shear Forces Explained: Hydraulic Jump

• Renato Rebouças
In summary, a hydraulic jump is a sudden increase in water level and change in flow pattern caused by a fast-moving, low-depth fluid encountering a slow-moving, high-depth fluid. It forms due to a sudden change in flow velocity and energy, and shear forces are created by the resistance between the two layers of fluid. Hydraulic jumps have real-world applications in rivers, waterfalls, and dams, and are studied using mathematical equations, computational models, and experiments in a laboratory setting.
Renato Rebouças
Please, say me what are shear forces. I've been looking for it because I was studying a phenomenon called hydraulic jump. In this example, are these forces caused by the cohesion forces?

I don't know any of this stuff myself, but I always sympathize with someone who has no resposes to a post. Maybe http://astron.berkeley.edu/~jrg/ay202/node17.html can help?

Last edited by a moderator:
A shear force per unit area (i.e, shear stress) acts tangential to a surface, rather than in the normal direction to the surface.

"Hydraulic jump?" You don't, by chance, mean hydraulic hammer?

## 1. What is a hydraulic jump?

A hydraulic jump is a phenomenon that occurs when a fast-moving, low-depth fluid suddenly encounters a slow-moving, high-depth fluid. This results in a sudden increase in the water level and a change in the flow pattern.

## 2. How does a hydraulic jump form?

A hydraulic jump forms when there is a sudden change in the flow velocity of a fluid, which causes a change in the flow's energy. This change in energy results in a change in the flow pattern, leading to the formation of a hydraulic jump.

## 3. What causes shear forces in a hydraulic jump?

Shear forces in a hydraulic jump are caused by the resistance between the two layers of fluid with different velocities. This resistance creates a shear stress at the interface, which contributes to the formation of the jump.

## 4. What are some real-world applications of hydraulic jumps?

Hydraulic jumps are commonly seen in rivers, waterfalls, and dams. They are also used in hydraulic structures, such as spillways and stilling basins, to dissipate energy and prevent erosion.

## 5. How do scientists study and analyze hydraulic jumps?

Scientists use mathematical equations and computational models to study and analyze hydraulic jumps. They also conduct experiments in a controlled laboratory setting to observe and measure the behavior of the fluid and its interactions during a hydraulic jump.

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