Do you know where can I find more about [tex]\hat{\sigma}[/tex] matrix define like(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({});

[tex]e^{-\beta \hat{H}}=e^{-\beta\hat{H}_0}\hat{\sigma}(\beta)\qquad \hat{H}=\hat{H}_0+\hat{V}[/tex]

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# Sigma matrix

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