In studies, they always refer to certain variable values or something. Like: one-sample t (64) = 7.02, p < .0001. This overestimation occurred even though self-ratings of ability were significantly correlated with our measure of actual ability, r (63) = .39, p < .001 or This was true for the first set of self-appraisals, &Beta s(67) = - .40 to - .49, p s < .001, as well as the second, &Beta s(67) = - .41 to - .50, p s < .001 what are t, p, r etc. ? I know I should know this but it's been a looooooong time. Poop. Those "&Beta"s are meant to be Beta symbols.