## Homework Statement

The simply supported beam shown is 10 m long with
E = 200 × 109 Pa and I = 150 × 10–6 m4. 1. Determine the position and magnitude of the maximum bending
moment.

2. Plot a graph of the deflection along the length of the beam
(calculate the deflection at 1 m intervals).

3. What I value for the beam would be required to halve the maximum
deflection of the beam?

4. The calculation for the maximum bending moment is to be verified
experimentally using a strain gauge bonded to the outer surface of the
beam, at the point where the maximum bending moment occurs.
Derive an equation which could be used to calculate the bending
moment from the measured strain value. State the meaning of all

## Homework Equations

M/I = σ/y = E/R

d2y / dx2 = M/EI

can anyone advise on where i should start?

Thanks.

SteamKing
Staff Emeritus
Homework Helper
1. Set up a free body diagram for the beam.
2. Solve for the unknown support reactions.
3. Draw the shear diagram for the beam.
4. Use the shear diagram to construct the bending moment diagram.
5. Once the moment diagram is done, make the M/I diagram.
6. Integrate the M/I diagram twice, making sure you keep the constants of integration.
7. After doing the integrations, apply the boundary conditions for the beam to determine the constants of integration.
8. Adjust the last integration to calculate the deflections of the beam.

Is the free body diagram not the same as the attached diagram?

SteamKing
Staff Emeritus
Homework Helper
Yes.

Ok I think i have calculated the unknown support reactions. does this look correct?

(3 * 20) + (7 * 30) + (5 * 10 *5) = r2 * 10

520 = r2 * 10

r2 = 52kN

upward forces=downward forces

r1 + 52 = 20 + 30 + (5 * 10)

r1 = 48kN

SteamKing
Staff Emeritus
Homework Helper
Looks good so far.

oxon88, you didn't have to ask us if it was correct. You could check it yourself by taking moments about any axis other than the one you have already used going through R1.

Thanks. I have drawn the shear force diagram and also calculated the bending moments (below).

x=0 = 0kN-m
x=1 = (48*1)-(5*1*0.5) = 45.5kN-m
x=2 = (48*2)-(5*2*1) = 86kN-m
x=3 = (48*3)-(5*3*1.5) = 121.5kN-m
x=4 = (48*4)-(20*1)-(5*4*2) = 132kN-m
x=5 = (48*5)-(20*2)-(5*5*2.5) = 137.5kN-m
x=6 = (48*6)-(20*3)-(5*6*3) = 138kN-m
x=7 = (48*7)-(20*4)-(5*7*3.5) = 133.5kN-m
x=8 = (48*8)-(20*5)-(30*1)-(5*8*4) = 94kN-m
x=9 = (48*9)-(20*6)-(30*2)-(5*9*4.5) = 49.5kN-m
x=10 = (48*10)-(20*7)-(30*3)-(5*10*5) = 0kN-m

Last edited:
SteamKing
Staff Emeritus
Homework Helper
I'm not sure what you are doing in Post #8.

At x = 0, the shear force diagram has a value equal to R1, or 48 kN. The bending moment at x = 0 is equal to 0 kN-m (Note the units).

Can you clarify?

post #8 are my calculations for the bending moments along the beam. I have amended the units.

SteamKing
Staff Emeritus
Homework Helper
The bending moments look good. Proceed with answering the questions in the OP.

thanks. Please can you explain what the M/I diagram is?

Last edited:
SteamKing
Staff Emeritus
Homework Helper
Just what it says. Take the ordinates of your bending moment diagram and divide by the moment of inertia of the beam (in this case I = 150 * 10^-6 m^4 according to the OP). It's not really required for this problem, since I is a constant, but when I changes along the length of the beam, an M/I diagram is useful when calculating deflection.

x=0 = 0kN-m
x=1 = 45.5kN-m / 150 * 10^-6 m^4 = 303333.3
x=2 = 86kN-m / 150 * 10^-6 m^4 = 573333.3
x=3 = 121.5kN-m / 150 * 10^-6 m^4 = 810000
x=4 = 132kN-m / 150 * 10^-6 m^4 = 880000
x=5 = 137.5kN-m / 150 * 10^-6 m^4 = 916666.7
x=6 = 138kN-m / 150 * 10^-6 m^4 = 920000
x=7 = 133.5kN-m / 150 * 10^-6 m^4 = 890000
x=8 = 94kN-m / 150 * 10^-6 m^4 = 626666.7
x=9 = 49.5kN-m / 150 * 10^-6 m^4 = 330000
x=10 = 0kN-m

so would the diagram be as pictured? SteamKing
Staff Emeritus
Homework Helper
Looks OK. Make sure you use the proper units.

• 1 person
ok Thankyou. What units should be used? Can you provide some guidance on how to integrate the M/I diagram twice?

SteamKing
Staff Emeritus
Homework Helper
ok Thankyou. What units should be used? Can you provide some guidance on how to integrate the M/I diagram twice?

Obviously, the units which result from dividing bending moment M by moment of inertia I.

The integration of the M/I diagram proceeds just like any other numerical integration: divide the x-axis into regular spacings and determine the M/I ordinates. You can use a trapezoidal rule to calculate the actual values of the integrals.

Remember, you must include the constants of integration in your calculation. There will be two unknown constants which are determined by applying the support conditions for your beam. You can start the integration by assuming the value of the integrals is zero at x = 0.

Since I is constant, the slope $\vartheta$ = (1/EI) ∫ M dx + C1
The deflection δ = (1/EI)∫∫ M dx + C1*x + C2

The final values for slope and deflection are determined by applying these constants of integration to your calculations of the integral values at the various x-locations.

am i not able to use this formula to solve y? SteamKing
Staff Emeritus
Homework Helper
am i not able to use this formula to solve y?

View attachment 63703

Where did you get this formula? It looks like only a point load P is present. What about deflection due to the distributed load?

Our learning material gives it as an example. Yes it states that the formula is used for simply supported beams at ends with concentrated load P at any point.

Would it not be posssible to calculate the deflection for each of the loads and then sum the answers?

For the UDL, could this formula not be used? SteamKing
Staff Emeritus
Homework Helper
Yes, you can use these formulas as long as you understand how to apply them properly.

ok thanks. So i can work out the deflection for each of the loads, then sum them all together?

Do you think Macaulay’s Method would be a better method to use?

I have got the following answers for total deflection. do these look feasible?

0m = 0mm
1m = 15.20mm
2m = 28.9mm
3m = 39.75mm
4m = 46.67mm
5m = 49.20mm
6m = 47.17mm
7m = 40.55mm
8m = 29.66mm
9m = 15.65mm
10m = 0mm

Last edited:
SteamKing
Staff Emeritus
Homework Helper
ok thanks. So i can work out the deflection for each of the loads, then sum them all together?

Yes. That's what superposition is all about w.r.t. beams.

Do you think Macaulay’s Method would be a better method to use?

It's up to you. You already have your deflection formulas. I don't think you would see any savings in terms of calculating the deflections as asked in the OP.

one thing i cant understand....

when i work out δmax for the 20kN load. i get δmax=10.9033mm

however when working out the deflection in terms of x, i can see that at 4.1m δ = 11.051 mm

have i done something wrong?

δmax = =20000*7*((100-49)^1.5)/(9*(SQRT(3)*10*30000000))*1000 = 10.9033mm

δx4.1 = (20000*3*(4.1-10)/(6*10*30000000))*(9-2*10*4.1+4.1*4.1)*1000 = 11.0507mm