Please forgive me, I don't really know how to properly ask my question, so I'll just do my best. I want to learn how sound is processed. More specifically what math goes into figuring out what individual frequencies are within a single sound signal. Like if I had a recording of say 5 separate tones, how could I mathematically determine the individual frequencies and amplitudes? I'm not sure what to even search for on google to learn more. Can someone please point me in the right direction? Thank you.