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## Homework Statement

I have a number of problems, to be completed in the next day or so (!) that I am pretty stuck with where to begin. They involve calculating the spectra of various different linear operators.

## Homework Equations

The first was:

Let X be the space of complex-valued continuous functions on Ω a closed bounded subset of ℂ, with supremum norm. Define for x [itex]\in[/itex] X, t [itex]\in[/itex] Ω

(Tx)(t) = tx(t)

I have found the spectrum of this by showing ker(λI - T) is zero and λI - T is onto for all λ not in Ω. So the spectrum of T is Ω.

I am pretty happy with this- I later found the same example in a book online and they agree with my answer.

I now have various ones involving sequences and I'm a lot more confused with these:

i) Let X be space of cts functions converging to zero with sup norm, & define:

T((a

_{j})) = ((j+1)

^{-1}a

_{j+1})

I think norm of T is 1/2 and this gives a radius bound for possible λ but have no idea really where to go from here- I think the kernel is trivial for all non zero λ but not getting very far with showing whether its surjective or not.

ii) Let S be the bounded linear operator on l

^{1}defined by

T((a

_{j})) = (a

_{j}- 2a

_{j+1}+ a

_{j+2})

Show the spectrum of T is a cardioid.

Again I can find a general bound for λ using the norm of T but get stuck after this.

## The Attempt at a Solution

Above.. any ideas on what to try next, or advice in general on methods of calculating spectra would be very welcome. Thanks in advance!

Zoe