1. The problem statement, all variables and given/known data 2. Relevant equations 3. The attempt at a solution Well thankfully I just have to present closure under mult. inverses and closure under addition. But I seem to be going in circles...if a is in G, then we need to show that a-1 is also in G. So a*a-1 = 1F, but is a-1 in G...so we can write a = ap, then if we can write a-1 = (ap)-1, then we'll be good. But how the heck do I do that? For closure under addition, I'm not really sure how to use the binomial theorem here, since we know that a + b means we can write them both as ap + bp, and now we've got to show that ap + bp can be written as (α + β)p. Not sure how to get this one started either. Any help is appreciated, thanks in advance.