# The difference between system equili and system and steady state

• hi
Steady state is not necessarily at equilibrium. In summary, the difference between a system at equilibrium and a system at steady-state water flow is that equilibrium occurs when there is no net change in the system, while steady state occurs when the system has a constant power or rate of change. Additionally, equilibrium can be described by the continuity equation, while steady state is defined by the absence of change in any fluid property. There is also a difference between saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, but it is not explained in this conversation.

#### hi

Can anyone explain the difference between a system at equilibrium and a system at steady-state water flow?

I know that equilibrium occurs at equal rates, no net change is produced. But I don't understand steady state system...Please explain it to me... Thanks

also the difference between saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity? I have hard time to understand these stuffs.. If anyone know these stuffs, can u please explain it to me. Thanks.

I'm moving this to Physics, where perhaps it will get some discussion.

Equilibrium: dU/dx = 0 (usually this happens at extrema of potential energy).

Originally posted by hi
I know that equilibrium occurs at equal rates, no net change is produced.

OK, at first I thought you meant the "zero force" condition, but now I am thinking that you are referring to the continuity equation. That is because when you say "equal rates", it makes me think of "equal flow rates into and out of a volume".

So, that statement of equilibrium would be:

[nab].j+&part;&rho;/&part;t=0

But I don't understand steady state system...Please explain it to me... Thanks

I dug up the old Fluid Mechanics book (it's been about 10 years!) and looked up the mathematical definition of steady state. It is...

&part;A/&part;t=0

for any fluid property A. That would include the density &rho;, which reduces the continuity equation to:

[nab].j=0

also the difference between saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity? I have hard time to understand these stuffs.. If anyone know these stuffs, can u please explain it to me. Thanks.

This I don't know. Our local "fluids" guy is Enigma; try sending him a PM.

edit: fixed &part; signs.

I would call steady state a state at which power (rate of chande of energy dU/dt) is constant.

## 1. What is the difference between system equilibrium and steady state?

System equilibrium refers to a state in which all forces acting on a system are balanced, resulting in a stable state. Steady state, on the other hand, refers to a state in which the system remains constant over time, with no net change in its properties or components.

## 2. How do system equilibrium and steady state relate to each other?

System equilibrium is often a prerequisite for achieving steady state. When a system is in equilibrium, it is more likely to reach a steady state as there are no external forces causing changes to the system. However, steady state can also be achieved in systems that are not in equilibrium.

## 3. Can a system be in both equilibrium and steady state at the same time?

Yes, it is possible for a system to be in both equilibrium and steady state simultaneously. This means that the system is balanced and stable, while also maintaining a constant state over time.

## 4. What factors can disrupt system equilibrium and prevent a system from reaching steady state?

External forces such as changes in environmental conditions, input or output rates, or disruptions in the system's components can disrupt system equilibrium and prevent steady state from being achieved.

## 5. How do scientists study and analyze system equilibrium and steady state?

Scientists use mathematical models and simulations to study and analyze system equilibrium and steady state. This allows them to predict how a system will behave under different conditions and identify the factors that can disrupt equilibrium or prevent steady state.