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The Last Extinction Event

  1. Dec 31, 2003 #1
    This is quite an interesting website (although not everything is valid) and seems to demonstrate that there is a lot of information, research that has been done by scientists over a 100 years ago on this topic. I'd like to read Sir Henry Howorth's book...His book may be a bit outdated but the evidence and observations he made must be valuable. (I've added the boldface) I don't see it at amazon or ebay. ILL is next.

    http://custance.org/Library/Volume4/Part_I/chapter10.html#Page5

    One of the most thorough students of this last great catastrophe was Sir Henry Howorth whose works are now virtually unobtainable. Although his interpretation of the evidence was, and still is, rejected by geologists committed to Lyell's principle of uniformity, he nevertheless put on record a tremendous amount of data, much of it gathered at firsthand, which is not nearly as well known as it should be. In one of his major works, The Mammoth and the Flood, he collected data regarding the innumerable known cases of mammoths frozen in northern latitudes, particularly in Siberia. (165) And yet in spite of this information, which is always very well documented, a comparatively recent paper by William R. Farrand entitled, "Frozen Mammoths and Modern Geology," spoke of only some 39 known frozen carcasses, of which only four are by any means complete; and it never once mentions the books and papers published by Sir Henry Howorth. (166) To Dr. Farrand, there is no real evidence of catastrophe in spite of the extraordinary circumstances under which these giant creatures evidently died. Howorth, however, gives many details which it is quite impossible, I believe, to account for in any other way than by assuming a very sudden catastrophe followed almost immediately by intense cold. It was encouraging to see that a correspondent countered Farrand's statements very effectively: (167) but Farrand replied with considerable sarcasm, clearly being on the defensive.
    In 1887 Howorth wrote: (168)
    In the first place, it is almost certain in my opinion that a very great cataclysm or catastrophe occurred . . . by which the mammoth with his companions was overwhelmed over a very large part of the earth's surface. This catastrophe, secondly, involved a widespread flood of waters which not only killed the animals but also buried them under continuous beds of loam or gravel. Thirdly, that the same catastrophe was accompanied by a very sudden change of climate in Siberia, by which the animals that had previously lived in fairly temperate conditions were frozen in their flesh under the ground and have remained there ever since.
    When the facts are stated, they are of such a nature as to be almost incredible and they are drawn from the works of such men as Wrangell, Strahlenberg, Witzen, Muller, Klaproth, Avril, Erman, Hedenstrom, Betuschef, Bregne, Gemlin, Brandt, Antermony, Liachof, Kusholof, Chamisso, Maljuschkin, Ides, Baer, Schmidt, Bell, Tatishof, Middendorf,
    165. Howorth, Sir Henry, Thc Mammoth and thc Flood: Uniformity and Geology, London, 1887.
    166. Farrand, William R., "Frozen Mammoths and Modern Geology," Science, vol.133, 1961, p.729-735.
    167. Lippman, Harold E., Letter to the Editor, under the heading "Frozen Mammoths," Science, vol.137, 1962, p.449ff.
    168. Howorth, Sir Henry, Thc Mammoth and thc Flood: Uniformity and Geology, London, p.47.

    ---cut---
    Howorth had this to say about these animal cemeteries: (178)

    The most obvious cause we can appeal to as occasionally producing mortality on a wide scale among animals is a murrain or pestilence, but what murrain or pestilence is so completely unbiased in its actions as to sweep away all forms of terrestrial life, even the very carriers of it ‹ the rodents ‹ including the fowls of the air, the beasts of the field, elephants, tigers, rhinoceroses, frogs, mice, bison and snakes, landsnails, and every conceivable form of life, and this not in one corner only but, as far as we know, over the whole of the two great continents irrespective of latitude or longitude.
    The fact of the bones occurring in great caches or deposits in which various species are mixed pell-mell is very important, and it is a fact undenied by geologists that whenever we find such a locality in which animals have suffered together in a violent and instantaneous destruction, the bones are invariably mixed and, as it were, "deposited" in a manner which could hardly be explained otherwise than by postulating the action of great tidal waves carrying fishes and all before them, depositing them far inland with no respect to order.

    178. Howorth, Sir Henry, Thc Mammoth and thc Flood: Uniformity and Geology, London, p.180.


    pg.10 of 15

    Howorth continued later:

    If animals die occasionally (in large numbers) from natural causes, different species do not come together to die, nor does the lion come to take his last sleep with the lamb! The fact of finding masses of animal remains.of mixed species all showing the same state of preservation, not only points to a more or less contemporary death, but is quite fatal to the theory that they ended their days peacefully and by purely natural means.
    If they had been exposed to the air, and to the severe transition between mid-winter and mid-summer, which characterizes Arctic latitudes, the mammoths would have decayed rapidly. But their state of preservation proves that they were covered over and protected ever since.

    This renowned but neglected authority concluded: (179)

    It is almost certain in my opinion that a very great cataclysm or catastrophe occurred by which the mammoth and his companions were overwhelmed over a very large part of the earth's surface. And that the same catastrophe was accompanied by a very great and sudden change of climate in Siberia, by which the animals which had previously lived in fairly temperate conditions were frozen . . . and were never once thawed until the day of their discovery. No other theory will explain the perfect preservation of these great elephants.




    http://custance.org/Library/Volume4/Part_I/chapter10.html
     
    Last edited: Dec 31, 2003
  2. jcsd
  3. Jan 7, 2004 #2
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