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I was studying capacitors when I came across these three questions:

Please refer the jpg with the topic.

Answer to 1st=

1st= 0

2st= 7.2 mJ

3st= 1.77 mJ

Now…

How am I supposed to know how to find the heat generated??? What basis do I use… well my questions are insane I know... but just because I have no idea what to do!!

Please help me find a way to find heat generated … not only for these cases but also for any other random case!!!

Please refer the jpg with the topic.

**Note**: I wrote the quoted text before I realized I could post the pic of questions … but I had written all this anyway and didn’t wanted it to go to waste … so I posed it anyway!!!!1st: A parallel plate capacitor is connected with a battery and after it is fully charged the separation b/w the plates is increased, --- of course capacitance decrease and charge flows backwards --- I am supposed to find heat generated in the process …

2nd: A capacitor is charged to some voltage V and then disconnected from it and connected to another battery of voltage V’ (<V) … so this time the current flows backwards … question is again to calculate the heat.

3rd: this time a capacitor is connected to a battery, removed after long time, connected to a capacitor of smaller capacitance!!! And again I need to calculate the heat generated!!!

Answer to 1st=

1st= 0

2st= 7.2 mJ

3st= 1.77 mJ

Now…

How am I supposed to know how to find the heat generated??? What basis do I use… well my questions are insane I know... but just because I have no idea what to do!!

Please help me find a way to find heat generated … not only for these cases but also for any other random case!!!