The Pioneer Fund, the Behavioral Sciences, and the Media's False Stories (1 Viewer)

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from the journal INTELLIGENCE 26(4): 319-336 Copyright © 1999 by Elsevier Science Inc.

The Pioneer Fund, the Behavioral Sciences, and the Media's False Stories by HARRY F. WEYHER, The Pioneer Fund, New York, NY, USA

The false charge of racism is simply a tactic to choke off rational discussion, a strategy of intimidation to silence expression . . . It is based on a shrewd calculation of the moral cowardice of man . . . fearful of becoming the target of such abuse.--Sidney Hook

Imagine it's the 21st century. UNESCO has commissioned scholars around the world to summarize the state of knowledge in every discipline. Their summaries will be placed on the Worldwide Web for use by the emerging global information society. You have been appointed to head the committee preparing the Web pages on: Adoption Studies; Behavioral Genetics; Brain Size and IQ; Crime and IQ; Cultural Bias and Cultural Fairness; Cultural Differences; Demographics and Fertility; Dysgenics and Eugenics; Employment and IQ; Gifted and Talented Children; Group Differences; Heritability, Heredity, and Environment; Intelligence and Individual Differences; the Jensen Effect; Personality and Temperament; Population and the Environment; Race Differences; Reaction Time and IQ; Sex Differences; Sociology of Intelligence; Spearman's Hypothesis; Twin and Kinship Studies.

In the computer literature search provided to your committee you find no mention of the following:

# John C. Flanagan's pioneering Air Corps study that later evolved into the famous Project TALENT, an on-going follow-up investigation of the vocational attitudes, abilities, and career objectives of more than 400,000 US high school students.

# Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr. and his colleagues David T. Lykken, Matthew McGue, Nancy L. Segal, and Auke Tellegen's Minnesota Twin Project showing that identical twins reared apart are far more similar than are fraternal twins reared together in IQ, personality, vocational interest, religiosity, and at times remarkably alike, even to the names of their spouses, children or pets.

# Arthur R. Jensen's documentation of the failure of compensatory education programs to raise either school achievement or IQ scores, his demonstration that culture bias is not a factor affecting relative IQ test performance in the US, and his confirmation of Charles Spearman's hypothesis that the differences in average IQ score between blacks and whites are greatest on the most g-loaded subtests.

# Hans J. Eysenck's post-1980s work promoting the trait approach to personality; his post-1980s development and use of the University of London Twin Register to demonstrate the heritability of intelligence, personality, and social attitudes; and much of his research program on the biological basis of intelligence (as summarized in his posthumous book Intelligence: The New Look).

# Lloyd G. Humphreys's continuing work on mathematical giftedness and commensurate levels of socio-economic status, on the construct of general intelligence, and on the validity of achievement and ability tests as predictors of life outcomes for both blacks and whites.

# Philip E. Vernon, Richard Lynn, and J. Philippe Rushton's demonstration that East Asians, both in their homelands and as immigrants, obtain average IQ scores above those of Europeans and European-Americans; Rushton's further demonstration that a similar pattern applies worldwide, not only for cognitive test scores, but for over 60 behavioral and physical traits.

# Eysenck, Jensen, Lynn, T. Edward Reed, and Philip A. Vernon's confirmation of Sir Francis Galton's insight that IQ score is significantly related to reaction time, and demonstration of a relationship between IQ score and evoked brain potential.

# Jensen and Rushton's finding that the most g-loaded IQ subtests are also the most heritable, and that the amount of inbreeding depression as measured on IQ tests of Japanese in Japan predicts the amount of regression to the mean and the amount of difference between blacks and whites in the US.

# Jensen, Lynn, Rushton, and P.A. Vernon's finding that brain size is related to IQ score, including use of state-of-the-art Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques; Jensen and Vernon's finding that the relationship between brain size and IQ holds within-families (among siblings) as well as between-families; Rushton's series of studies showing the oriental-white-black gradient in average brain size parallels the one in mean IQ.

# Garrett Hardin's extension of his "Tragedy of the Commons" and "Living on a Lifeboat" metaphors to questions of the environment, population size, and immigration policy.

# Audrey Shuey's compilation of what has become the standard sourcebook of every major study of intelligence scores among African-Americans (later updated by Frank C.J. McGurk and R. Travis Osborne); McGurk's finding that the racial gap on IQ scores has not lessened for later generations with the narrowing of the socioeconomic gap.

# Rushton and Osborne's demonstration that heritability estimates are about the same for different groups in the US.

# Robert A. Gordon's evidence that the IQ requirements of daily activities produce differential rates across populations of undesirable social outcomes such as crime, poverty, and HIV infection, thereby intensifying racial politics.

# Finally, Linda S. Gottfredson's work showing how the effects of intelligence level pervade everyday life, and tracing dilemmas in social policy that arise from individual and group mean differences in intelligence, such as that between racial representativeness and competence in police hiring.

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